Amino Acid

Epimutation.com: a domain of confusion

See: Epimutation.com Currently, there is no content. When content is added, it will almost undoubtedly further the cause of confusion that evolutionary theorists must use in attempts to prevent serious scientists from Combating Evolution to Fight Disease. Serious scientists use what is currently known about biologically-based cause and effect. Prepare yourself for more pseudoscientific nonsense about epimutations. Until then, see this: Researchers investigate effect of environmental epigenetics on disease and evolution Excerpt 1) …environmental factors are having an underappreciated effect…

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Viruses, amino acids, and somatic cell types (2)

Quantitative and functional interrogation of parent-of-origin allelic expression biases in the brain Excerpt: The RNA-seq data enabled us to detect a positive correlation between developmental changes in the magnitude of parental biases and overall gene expression for most imprinted genes. Conclusion: At the level of the organism, our data uncover how paternal and maternal alleles of Bcl-x make vastly different contributions to brain development, a result that has profound implications for the analysis of parentally-inherited polymorphisms in human health. Reported…

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Becoming biologically informed (3)

See also: Becoming biologically informed and Becoming biologically informed (2) Now available for free: New Perspectives on microRNA in Disease and Therapy (July 22, 2015) My comments: Perhaps someone will correct me if I am wrong. The microRNAs do not appear to participate in a direct response to viruses. But, over long periods of time they may fine-tune the microRNA/messenger RNA balance in the organized genomes of all living genera.  If so, the changes are manifested in morphology and in…

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Easy editing: Reinventing our RNA world

Easy DNA Editing Will Remake the World. Buckle Up. Excerpt: Most present-day animals and plants defend themselves against viruses with structures made out of RNA. My comment: RNA-mediated gene duplication and fixation of  RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of the nutrient-dependent physiology of learning, memory, and reproduction links the biophysically constrained chemistry of cell type differentiation in all genera via conserved molecular mechanisms. That fact was integrated into the science fiction novel Blood Music by Greg Bear, who…

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Decreased phenotypic variation: Faith in Facts

Serious scientists have known for more than a decade that …phenotypic variation decreases through geologic time, because microRNAs (miRNAs) increase genic precision, by turning an imprecise number of mRNA transcripts into a more precise number of protein molecules… See for example: MicroRNAs and metazoan macroevolution: insights into canalization, complexity, and the Cambrian explosion That fact links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs to DNA repair in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. Viruses appear to cause…

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RNA-mediated gene duplication, fixation, and ecological adaptation

Chromosomal Arrangement of Phosphorelay Genes Couples Sporulation and DNA Replication Excerpt: The simplicity of this coordination mechanism suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. Reported as: Bacteria use DNA replication to time key decision Excerpt: “Successful sporulation requires two complete copies of the bacterial chromosome, so coordination between the sporulation decision and the completion of DNA replication is very important,” Narula said. “A good analogy might be a semester-long course in…

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The RNA-mediated sum of our parts

See also: The sum of our RNA-mediated parts The Sum of Our Parts Excerpt: Putting the microbiome front and center in health care, in preventive strategies, and in health-risk assessments could stem the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. I decided to comment on this, again, and post a comment to “The Scientist” after Jay R. Feireman, who banned me from participation on the International Society for Human Ethology yahoo group, posted a link to the article. Feierman has done more than…

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“New” epigenetic mechanism for lifelong learning?

Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity Reported as: Lifelong learning is made possible by recycling of histones, study says Also reported as: New epigenetic mechanism revealed in brain cells Excerpt: In humans, researchers used a technique called 14C/12C bomb pulse dating to measure turnover. The technique is based on the fact that high levels of radioactive carbon (14C) were released into the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s, when open-air nuclear bomb testing occurred following the…

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Nutrient stress-induced RNA-mediated pathology

HIF-driven SF3B1 induces KHK-C to enforce fructolysis and heart disease Reported as: Fructose powers a vicious circle Excerpt: The central fructose-metabolising enzyme is ketohexokinase (KHK), which exists in two isoforms: KHK-A and KHK-C, generated through mutually exclusive alternative splicing of KHK pre-mRNAs. My comment: The role of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs in cell type differentiation was linked from yeasts to mammals in 1996. Nothing known about biolgically-based cause and effect has changed since then. See our section on…

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Alternative splicings: epigenetics meets pharmacogenomics

Alternative splicing [is] …a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins… [T]he proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions…. See also: Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution Excerpt: It now appears that alternative splicing is, perhaps, the most critical evolutionary factor determining the differences between human beings and other creatures. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: Small…

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