antibiotic resistance

Pathology: Eating and breathing viruses

RNA viruses can hijack vertebrate microRNAs [miRNAs] to suppress innate immunity Excerpt: The extent of sequence complementary between the miRNA and mRNA leads to control of mRNA-encoded polypeptide levels by either a block in translation, degradation of the mRNA, or both5, 6. For RNA viruses, limited evidence exists for host miRNAs binding to viral RNAs and restricting infection or affecting disease1, 7, 8. In the excerpt above, the host miRNAs offer nutrient-dependent protection against viral RNAs. Earlier blog posts on…

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Cell types, SNVs, CNVs, and chromosomes

See also: A “new” code enables ecological adaptation For comparison, see: Genome-Wide Detection of Single-Nucleotide and Copy-Number Variations of a Single Human Cell Excerpt: Single-molecule and single-cell studies reveal behaviors that are hidden in bulk measurements (1, 2). In a human cell, the genetic information is encoded in 46 chromosomes. The variations occurring in these chromosomes, such as single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) and copy-number variations (CNVs) (3), are the driving forces in biological processes such as evolution and cancer. Such dynamic…

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RNA-mediated cell type differentiation: Honeybee

Changes in the Gene Expression Profiles of the Hypopharyngeal Gland of Worker Honeybees in Association with Worker Behavior and Hormonal Factors Excerpt: …amino acid spacer connecting the Zn-finger motifs [49], is an early JH-response gene that mediates JH action downstream of Met [46]. My comment: RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction and cell type differentiation in all genera. — see Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Excerpt:…

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A lighting requirement for life

Some Principles of Causal Analysis in Genetics (1936) Extract: high frequency radiation and particles of high velocity are very important components of the environment, causing heritable changes by a process called mutation. Even if we could conduct our experiments behind 30 metres of lead the fact that mutation has a temperature coefficient is enough to show that it depends in part on energy fluctuations which are uncontrollable. Mutations must be controlled. See also: Life on Earth – Flow of Energy…

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Scientists lose. A sci-fi author gains credibility

Phage spread antibiotic resistance Excerpt 1) nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another—or from one species to another. Excerpt 2) Until recently, transduction of antibiotic resistance via phage was assumed to be a very minor source of the spread of resistance, said Hilbert. My comment: Bacteriophages were linked to cell type differentiation in species from…

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Bees and primates automagically evolve

The Evolution of Social Bees Excerpt: …one key feature of increased sociality is an elaboration of gene regulation capacity. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) Excerpt: …odor perception is more akin to the immune system workings where multitudes of receptors are each uniquely responsive to chemical structures (Bartoshuk and Beauchamp, 1994; Buck and Axel, 1991). Moreover, these receptor proteins are chemically and structurally similar to those that bind neurotransmitters and hormones (Buck and Axel, 1991). See also:…

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MicroRNAs and memory

Diet rich in methionine may promote memory loss Excerpt: “We are looking further into epigenetic factors like microRNA and other downstream genes that could be associated with memory loss.” See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (an invited review of nutritional epigenetic) Abstract excerpt: “This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The…

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Rejecting what is known about viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

Of Cells and Limits Leonard Hayflick has been unafraid to speak his mind, whether it is to upend a well-entrenched dogma or to challenge the federal government. At 86, he’s nowhere near retirement. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 1, 2015 Excerpt: The rejection letter came from Francis Peyton Rous who received the Nobel Prize a few years later for his discovery of chicken tumor viruses. My comment: My 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics detailed how differences in the microRNA/messenger…

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Complex behaviors of cell types in cancer

Decoding the emergence of metastatic cancer stem cells Excerpt: “By applying a physics-based approach to understand the dynamics of cancer decision-making, we were able to explain a number of recent experimental observations, including some that seemed contradictory.” My comment: The logic of the physics-based approach links physics, chemistry, biology, and math, etc. to conserved molecular mechanisms at the same time theorists tout their pseudoscientific nonsense about “mutations.” See, for example: Cancer’s deadly mutational tug of war Excerpt: Mutations are either…

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Epigenetically-effected metabolic shifts and ecological adaptations

Epigenetics of Trained Innate Immunity: Documenting the epigenetic landscape of human innate immune cells reveals pathways essential for training macrophages. By Ruth Williams | September 25, 2014 [open access] Excerpt: “…they then analyzed genome-wide distributions of four epigenetic indicators of gene activity: DNAse hypersensitivity and three different histone modifications—trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. They also analyzed genome-wide transcription and transcription factor binding. Together…

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