cause and effect

RNA-mediated theory killers

Brain-manipulation studies may produce spurious links to behaviour Study shows that controlling neurons with light or drugs may affect the brain in more ways than expected. Excerpt: Given that many experiments build on existing knowledge about circuits involved in a behaviour, he cautions, experimental scientists should be particularly careful when using transient techniques to map entirely new circuits in the brain. “This study nicely reminds us that there is no perfect technique,” says Evan Feinberg, a neuroscientist at the University…

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Controled Stem Cell Expansion

Serine … is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. [It]… is classified as a polar amino acid. My comment: Serine synthesis in the body is linked to glycine, which also may be naturally produced when UV light illuminates simple ices (e.g., combinations of water, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). That suggested to some people that glycine and other amino acids may be easily produced in cold regions of space, and the suggestion, like virtually all suggestions, seems to be believable…

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Mechanisms of stress: from genes to cancer

Biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in all living genera. Genomic stability arises in the context of a fine-tuned balance of viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs.  RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions stabilize organized genomes. Nutrient-dependent microRNAs are linked by RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions from ecological variation to protection from DNA damage caused by viral microRNAs. The microRNA/messenger RNA balance links ecological variation to…

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Hypotheses and mathematical philosophy

What the Man Described as ‘The Next Darwin’ Has to Say About God Excerpts: …this is a hypothesis, kind of like the multiverse theory. It’s getting a lot of press, but it doesn’t actually have any falsifiable claims yet. There’s absolutely no way to test it. At best, it’s a hypothesis, at worst, it’s really kind of a mathematical philosophy. …life is an inevitable consequence of thermodynamics given the right conditions. My comment: Hypotheses and mathematical philosophy have no explanatory…

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Healthy mutants

Why Do Healthy People Have Harmful Mutations? By Ricki Lewis, PhD Posted: June 4, 2015 Excerpts: More intriguing were the 43 participants who had disease-causing genotypes, but were healthy. Further investigation found biochemical evidence, symptoms, or telling characteristics. Figuring out all the interactions that underlie gene expression is a challenge that dwarfs that of sequencing the first human genome, and the effort is underway. Now that’s precision medicine. My comment: RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link metabolic…

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Military combat training to fight disease (2)

See: Military combat training to fight disease In the quantum world, the future affects the past Excerpt 1) “It’s not clear why in the real world, the world made up of many particles, time only goes forward and entropy always increases,” Murch said. My comment: Serious scientists are attempting to determine why entropy does not always increase. They realize that feedback loops link cause and effect from the quantum world to the real world of light-induced amino acid substitutions that…

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Removing natural selection; reshaping the horse; adjusting evolutionary theory

Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication Reported as: Reshaping the horse through millennia Excerpt: “Domestication is generally associated with repeated demographic crashes. Yet, mutations that negatively impact genes are not eliminated by selection and can even increase in frequency when populations are small. Domestication thus generally comes at a cost, as deleterious mutations can accumulate in the genome. This had already been shown for rice and dogs. Horses now provide another example of this phenomenon.” My…

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The key to science: experimental evidence

  If it disagrees with the experiment, it’s wrong! — Richard Feynman (1964) Two different experiments are among others from the Vosshall lab that show the theory of evolution is wrong. 1) This experiment links induced mutations in olfactory receptor genes to the inability to find a source of nutrients. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET The source is a human, and the presence of humans is a recent addition to…

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Biophysically constrained beginnings of RNA and DNA

Any anonymous participant in the discussion of: DNA may have had humble beginnings as nutrient carrier (Sep 01, 2014 by Adam Hadhazy) asks: “when are you going to keep quiet?” In a series of responses, I have explained the problem I have with honoring his request. The following excerpts from Wikipedia and other sources are loosely strung together because there is no point to providing more extensive details of biologically-based cause and effect until others accept the fact that mutations…

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