Cell Type

Scientists lose. A sci-fi author gains credibility

Phage spread antibiotic resistance Excerpt 1) nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another—or from one species to another. Excerpt 2) Until recently, transduction of antibiotic resistance via phage was assumed to be a very minor source of the spread of resistance, said Hilbert. My comment: Bacteriophages were linked to cell type differentiation in species from…

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Ignoring systems complexity (it’s too complicated)

Host, heal thyself: Immune system self-organizes to minimize biological cost of pathogenic infections Excerpt 1) This approach allowed the scientists to create a new framework that makes it unnecessary to explicitly model intracellular communication, cell differentiation, activation of cofactors, coordination of different cell types, the interaction with the innate immune system, and the full complexity of the recognition process. My comment: Population geneticists took that approach when they invented neo-Darwinian evolution. They eliminated all aspects of nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation…

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Virus-driven cancer treatment and prevention

Blocking a metabolic pathway may shrink aggressive form of common kidney cancer Excerpt: ..the cancer cells appear to rely primarily on the metabolism of an amino acid called glutamine for their energy. My comment:  This links differences in hydrogen atom energies and the anti-entropic epigenetic effect of nutrient energy to virus-driven differences in the metabolism of glutamine and DNA repair. Those differences link viral microRNAs to entropic elasticity. The differences also link nutrient-dependent microRNAs to the stability of organized genomes…

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A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway

Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Excerpt 1) The accumulation of hypoglycosylated nuclear FGFR1 (nFGFR1) is stimulated by a variety of developmental signals, including various growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters as well as a reduction in cell contact. This is the reason that this pathway is referred to as integrative [1, 15]. Reported as: Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report Summary: New research shows how a single…

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DNA Methylation and organized genomes (2)

The Darwin Code by Greg Bear Excerpt (from 2005): “The picture we see now in genetics is complex. Variation can occur in a number of ways. DNA sequence is not fate; far from it. The same sequence can yield many different products. Complexes of genes lie behind most discernible traits. Genes can be turned on and off at need. Non-coding DNA is becoming extremely important to understanding how genes do their work. Non-coding RNA, sugars, and lipids–including many cellular components…

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Amino acid-dependent cell type differentiation

mTORC1 is a protein complex that functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. “MCRS1 Binds and Couples Rheb to Amino Acid-Dependent mTORC1 Activation” reported as: Oncogene regulated by nutrients identified A protein that is a molecular link connects Rheb-GTP to mTORC1 activation, lysosomes, and amino acid responses. Depletion of the protein links a chain of interactions to mTORC1 inactivation. The authors address the complexity of the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding, which…

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Creating nothing but a theory (2)

Seeing the (UV) light: Previously undetected difference in human mutation rate unique to Europeans Excerpts from the discussion: Q: What’s the threshold at which UV-induced substitutions become UV-induced mutations? A: The balance of viral microRNAs to nutrient-dependent microRNAs is the determinant of controlled vs perturbed cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all genera. Cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained by the nutrient-dependent chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding, which is perturbed by mutations. That’s why uncontrolled mutations…

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Epigenetic effects of soil bacteria on plants

Soil Bacteria Live on Wine Grapes The earthiness of Merlot may have to do with grapevine-dwelling microbiota. By Kerry Grens | March 25, 2015 Excerpt: “…our next step is to figure out how those bacteria are affecting the chemistry of the plant.” My comment: Progress may then lead others to learn how the balance of viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs is linked to cell type differentiation in plants and animals via RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions linked…

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