degradation

RNA-mediated genetic engineering (Part 3)

RCas9: A programmable RNA editing tool Excerpt: “The researchers envision a wide range of potential applications for RCas9. For example, an RCas9 tethered to a protein translation initiation factor and targeted to a specific mRNA could essentially act as a designer translation factor to “up-” or “down-” regulate protein synthesis from that mRNA.” My comment: This “up-” or “down-” regulation of protein synthesis from mRNA occurs naturally in the context of RNA-mediated genetic engineering. Nutrient uptake alters the microRNA/messenger RNA…

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Different physical locations and different molecular mechanisms of health and disease

Reappraisal of known malaria resistance loci in a large multicenter study Abstract excerpt: “The finding that G6PD deficiency has opposing effects on different fatal complications of P. falciparum infection indicates that the evolutionary origins of this common human genetic disorder are more complex than previously supposed.” Reported as: Long term genetic study finds geographical differences in human immune response to malaria Excerpt: “…humans living in different physical locations have evolved different mechanisms for staving off the dreaded disease malaria.” My…

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Physics denied; pseudoscientific nonsense accepted

  The events depicted are now portrayed in the context of Genome Dynamics Events, which are biophysically-constrained RNA-mediated events. RNA-mediated events lead to amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of species. For example: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” Dobzhansky (1973) See also: God, Darwin and My College Biology Class By DAVID P.…

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Epigenetically-effected metabolic shifts and ecological adaptations

Epigenetics of Trained Innate Immunity: Documenting the epigenetic landscape of human innate immune cells reveals pathways essential for training macrophages. By Ruth Williams | September 25, 2014 [open access] Excerpt: “…they then analyzed genome-wide distributions of four epigenetic indicators of gene activity: DNAse hypersensitivity and three different histone modifications—trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. They also analyzed genome-wide transcription and transcription factor binding. Together…

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Stop evolutionary theorists. Kill cancers

Bacterial ‘communication system’ could be used to stop, kill cancer cells, study finds Excerpt: “During an infection, bacteria release molecules which allow them to ‘talk’ to each other,” said the lead author of the study. “Depending on the type of molecule released, the signal will tell other bacteria to multiply, escape the immune system or even stop spreading.” My comment: Nutrient-dependent cell type proliferation is pheromone-controlled during health and infections — and in other diseases and disorders. The conserved molecular…

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Seemingly futile cycles are not thermodynamically futile

Scientists discover an on/off switch for aging cells The switch controls the growth of telomeres, the timekeepers of cells September 19, 2014 Excerpt: Understanding how this “off” switch can be manipulated–thereby slowing down the telomere shortening process–could lead to treatments for diseases of aging (for example, regenerating vital organs later in life).” My comment: Seemingly futile thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and  degradation appear to be confusing. I’m somewhat certain that the folks at Salk realize that cycles of biophysically-constrained…

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RNA-mediated events found everywhere

Transcriptome-wide Mapping Reveals Widespread Dynamic-Regulated Pseudouridylation of ncRNA and mRNA Related articles Related blog posts on this site Reported as Scientists discover RNA modifications in some unexpected places Excerpt 1): “…there are multiple types of RNA, three of which—messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—are essential for proper protein production. Moreover, RNAs that are synthesized during the process known as transcription often undergo subsequent changes, which are referred to as “post-transcriptional modifications.” My comment: These microRNA/messenger RNA-mediated…

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Understanding the role of mutations and evolution

On  Fri Aug 16, 2013 at 10:21 am,  Clarence ‘Sonny’ Williams wrote: “As for mutations, some members of this group might have a misunderstanding regarding the role of mutations and evolution.  A review of college textbooks on evolution reveal this: Mutations are any change to the genomic sequence of an organism and mutations ARE REQUIRED for evolution. Yes, there are a few scientists who argue for such things as “genetic engineering” (e.g., James Shapiro) and “germ line epigenetic inheritance” in mammals (e.g., Eva…

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Evolution: innovations may have non-adaptive origins (sans mutations)

Q & A: Evolution Makes Do By Chris Palmer Evolutionary biologist Andreas Wagner argues that many evolutionary innovations may have non-adaptive origins. Excerpt: “If exaptations are pervasive, then natural selection—which few doubt is critical for the preservation and spreading of traits—may not be that important for the origin of innovations in life’s history.” See also: Rapid detection of positive selection in genes and genomes through variation clusters Excerpt: “They occur in well-defined domains of a protein’s tertiary structure and show…

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Pheromones and cancer

Transcription Factor-MicroRNA-Target Gene Networks Associated with Ovarian Cancer Survival and Recurrence Excerpt: “MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to complementary sequences on target mRNA transcripts, and thus, regulate gene expression at the post-transcription stage. Transcription factors (TFs) are a different type of regulator. These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region, promoting or repressing transcription into mRNA, and thus, regulate genes at a pre-transcription stage [4]. TFs and miRNAs can regulate each other and…

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