DNA methylation

What I cannot create I eliminate from discussion

New inorganic aromatic ion Excerpt: Aromatic molecules are a staple of organic chemistry. This comment was removed by the site staff for violation of the comments guidelines : Excerpt: “… when a molecule that looks perfectly reasonable does not exist, the reason may be as simple as nobody has yet found a way to make it.”The same claim explains all biodiversity. Although no one has found a way to re-create existing differences in morphological and behavioral phenotypes, theorists think it…

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RNA-mediated development (3)

See: RNA-mediated development and RNA-mediated development (2)  Widespread Co-translational RNA Decay Reveals Ribosome Dynamics Excerpt: It is generally assumed that mRNAs undergoing translation are protected from decay. Here, we show that mRNAs are, in fact, co-translationally degraded. My comment: Serious scientists do not assume that anything about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation can be placed into the context of neo-Darwinian theory.  Serious scientists provide details about the molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation. Reported as: New Mechanism for mRNA Decay Once…

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RNA-mediated development

The Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia are sources for up-to-date information about biologically based cause and effect, which links epigenetic effects on hormones to the affects of hormones on behavior. The difference between effect and affect was place into the context here: Correction for McEwen, Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin The authors note that on page 17184, right column, first paragraph, line 4, “effect” should instead appear as “affect.” In the early 1990’s, Bruce McEwen…

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Healthy mutants

Why Do Healthy People Have Harmful Mutations? By Ricki Lewis, PhD Posted: June 4, 2015 Excerpts: More intriguing were the 43 participants who had disease-causing genotypes, but were healthy. Further investigation found biochemical evidence, symptoms, or telling characteristics. Figuring out all the interactions that underlie gene expression is a challenge that dwarfs that of sequencing the first human genome, and the effort is underway. Now that’s precision medicine. My comment: RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link metabolic…

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Uniquely epigenomic gene regulation

A Unique Gene Regulatory Network Resets the Human Germline Epigenome for Development Excerpt: Methylation at alternative promoters or splice sites can affect transcript variants expression, whereas enhancer methylation may modulate gene expression (Jones, 2012). These are potential mechanisms for translating DNA methylation information to phenotypes. Reported as: Reprogramming of DNA observed in human germ cells for first time Excerpt: …a notable fraction of the retroelements in our genome are ‘escapees’ and retain their methylation patterns – particularly those retroelements that…

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Rejecting pseudoscientific nonsense

Rejecting Evolutionary Psychology is Rejecting Evolution Discussion on the closed group Applied Evolutionary Psychology includes my comments on several other reports, beginning with: My comments on: Early Code New research points to key properties of transfer RNA molecules and amino acids that may have supported the origin of life on Earth. I wrote: Thanks for providing yet another reason to reject evolutionary psychology.  Acceptance of RNA-mediated links to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all genera…

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microRNAs, glycosylation, and genomes

Summary: Given what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera, it may be impossible for theorists to link mutations to evolution via glycosylation. miRNA proxy approach reveals hidden functions of glycosylation Abstract excerpt: Glycosylation, the most abundant posttranslational modification, holds an unprecedented capacity for altering biological function. Journal article excerpt: …glycans play a role in every major disease (1), and there are clinical examples of drugs targeting glycosylation enzymes… suggesting that glycosylation enzymes may provide fallow…

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Alternative splicings: epigenetics meets pharmacogenomics

Alternative splicing [is] …a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins… [T]he proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions…. See also: Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution Excerpt: It now appears that alternative splicing is, perhaps, the most critical evolutionary factor determining the differences between human beings and other creatures. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: Small…

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Epigenetic regulation of aging by glycine and GnRH

Summary:  “…the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.” My comment: The broad-based extension of the fact that aging is epigenetically controlled, extends everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation across the life history transitions of all genera. The focus here is on vertebrates,…

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Viruses and the human-like microbiome

Ocean’s microbiome has incredible diversity – and human likeness Excerpt: The microbiome of the world’s biggest ecosystem and one of the smallest appear to function in surprisingly similar ways. The New Scientist article  reports on: Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome Journal article abstract conclusion: …vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with…

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