Epigenetic

Unconscious affect (revisited)

Kohl et al., (2001) …the importance of human non-verbal signals is based upon information processing, which occurs in the limbic system, and without any cognitive (cortical) assessment. Affect thus does not require conscious interpretation of signal content. Underlying this fact is that affect dominates social interaction and it is the major currency in social interactions [6]. Affective reactions can occur without extensive perceptual and cognitive encoding. They are made with greater confidence than cognitive judgments, and can be made sooner…

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Uniquely epigenomic gene regulation

A Unique Gene Regulatory Network Resets the Human Germline Epigenome for Development Excerpt: Methylation at alternative promoters or splice sites can affect transcript variants expression, whereas enhancer methylation may modulate gene expression (Jones, 2012). These are potential mechanisms for translating DNA methylation information to phenotypes. Reported as: Reprogramming of DNA observed in human germ cells for first time Excerpt: …a notable fraction of the retroelements in our genome are ‘escapees’ and retain their methylation patterns – particularly those retroelements that…

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Alternative splicings: epigenetics meets pharmacogenomics

Alternative splicing [is] …a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins… [T]he proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions…. See also: Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution Excerpt: It now appears that alternative splicing is, perhaps, the most critical evolutionary factor determining the differences between human beings and other creatures. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: Small…

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Epigenetic regulation of aging by glycine and GnRH

Summary:  “…the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.” My comment: The broad-based extension of the fact that aging is epigenetically controlled, extends everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation across the life history transitions of all genera. The focus here is on vertebrates,…

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Pattern recognition: biogeochemical structure and function

Microbes Effect on the Brain Excerpt: Recent research shows dramatic effects of microbe products from the gut on mental function—depression, stress, autism, and degenerative illness. In humans, many studies show microbes affect anxiety, mood, depression and social behavior. Direct effects are through secreted products, stimulation of the enteric nervous system and travel of microbes into the brain, while indirect factors are microbes’ influence on immune function affecting behavior. Microbes produce molecules that transform into hormones and neurotransmitters or they produce…

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Viruses and the human-like microbiome

Ocean’s microbiome has incredible diversity – and human likeness Excerpt: The microbiome of the world’s biggest ecosystem and one of the smallest appear to function in surprisingly similar ways. The New Scientist article  reports on: Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome Journal article abstract conclusion: …vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with…

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Informing the biologically uninformed

Please help those who are not biologically uninformed link the latest information from Science Magazine to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera. For example, see:  Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean Introduction: The sunlit surface layer of the world’s oceans functions as a giant biogeochemical membrane between the atmosphere and the ocean interior (1). My comment: That fact links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of the sun’s biological energy from the de novo creation of amino acids to RNA-mediated…

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Appetite for ingesting theories (raw)

On The Edge of Neuroscience and Psychology Facebook Group, no one seems interested enough to discuss the difference between an epigenetic effect on hormones and an affect of hormones on behavior. Without a starting point for discussion, there may be no further comments on Goy, R. W., and McEwen, B. S. (1980). Sexual Differentiation of the Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Without discussion of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated sexual differentiation of cell types in the brain, there is no way to link…

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Batch effect vs epigenetic effects

A reanalysis of mouse ENCODE comparative gene expression data [awaiting peer review] was reported as: Batch Effect Behind Species-Specific Results? Excerpt: genes in the mouse heart were expressed in a pattern more similar to that of other mouse tissues, such as the brain or liver, than the human heart. My comment: If that was an accurate representation of biologically-based cause and effect, it could not be supported by what is currently known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-depenent pheromone-controlled…

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Bee-birthed epigenetics and primate cell types

Summary: This is a fantastic video representation of how nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-directed DNA methylation links ecological variation to RNA-mediated ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions in all genera. The Birth of a Bee Excerpt: After the queen bee lays a single egg in a cell of the comb, the worker bees feed the egg for a few days until it hatches into a larva. The larva continues to eat and grow until Day 10. Then, the worker bees cap the…

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