fixation

Olfactory receptor pseudo-pseudogenes

Olfactory receptor pseudo-pseudogenes Abstract: Pseudogenes are generally considered to be non-functional DNA sequences that arise through nonsense or frame-shift mutations of protein-coding genes1. Although certain pseudogene-derived RNAs have regulatory roles2, and some pseudogene fragments are translated3, no clear functions for pseudogene-derived proteins are known. Olfactory receptor families contain many pseudogenes, which reflect low selection pressures on loci no longer relevant to the fitness of a species4. Here we report the characterization of a pseudogene in the chemosensory variant ionotropic glutamate…

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Did evolution autophosphorylate your kinases? (3)

Did evolution autophosphorylate your kinases? (1) Did evolution autophosphorylate your kinases? (2) See also: N6-Methyladenosine in Flaviviridae Viral RNA Genomes Regulates Infection Reported as: Chemical tags affect ability of RNA viruses to infect cells Dynamics of Human and Viral RNA Methylation during Zika Virus Infection Reported as:  Zika virus infection alters human and viral RNA My comment: Virus-driven hecatombic evolution of all pathology is linked from the failure of energy-dependent phosphorylation to biophysically constrain the RNA-mediated damage to DNA via…

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Hecatombic evolution via oncocers and oncohistones

Mutation-driven evolution is being replaced by a theory of hecatombic evolution that links oncocers and oncohistones to increasing organismal complexity via autophosphorylation and autophagy or something else as yet to be invented in the context of the new ridiculous theory. See for comparison: Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells Abstract excerpt: We show that altered transcription is the driver of these coordinated changes, known as lineage priming, in a process that exploits novel polycomb activities. What…

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Creating and/or programming the immune system

A programming language for living cells Thanks to Fabricio Paes de Medeiros for calling attention to this example of an engineered innate immune system. The immune system links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. Excerpt: The sensors can detect different compounds, such as oxygen or glucose, as well as light, temperature, acidity, and other environmental conditions. My comment: It will be interesting to see…

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Blood test links atoms to ecosystems

New blood test may expand scope of liquid biopsies Excerpt: During cell death, the DNA gets chopped into small pieces by enzymes that like to cut in the easily accessible, unprotected sections of DNA in between the nucleosomes. My comment: The test links ecological variation to nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair via microRNAs and adhesion proteins. The adhesion proteins link supercoiled DNA to protection from virus-driven entropy in the organized genomes of all living genera. The organized genomes are linked from…

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Finding peace and π in the light of H bond energy

It might be amusing if the misrepresentations of links between energy and cell type differentiation by people like PZ Myers were not going to cause more suffering and death.  Instead, two years after his attack on me for my accurate representations of the link from nutrient energy-dependent chromosomal rearrangements to pheromone-controlled biodiversity in species from microbes to humans we see this: You’re trying to explain a random phenotype by looking for a randomization mechanism in the genome. No one will…

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Receptor methylation controls behavior

The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling Excerpt 1) The addition of a methyl group to an arginine residue can remove a hydrogen bond donor and decrease the electrostatic surface potential at the residue, resulting in a change in size and hydrophobicity that can affect its interaction with binding partners (21). Excerpt 2) Together, these results led us to propose that arginine methylation promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling and that this mechanism of receptor regulation is conserved…

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FREE* SAMPLE: Histone modification

FREE* SAMPLE Histone Modification Antibodies   See also — as used in ad copy excerpt for their products: Histone modification antibodies are notorious for binding non-specifically to similar, but off-target histone modifications and/or having their specific binding inhibited by steric hindrance from modifications on neighboring residues. CST addresses these issues by using including a peptide array assay similar to the one described by Fuchs, S.M., et al. (1) to our validation testing. In a single experiment, the peptide arrays assess…

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RNA-mediated gene duplication, fixation, and ecological adaptation

Chromosomal Arrangement of Phosphorelay Genes Couples Sporulation and DNA Replication Excerpt: The simplicity of this coordination mechanism suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. Reported as: Bacteria use DNA replication to time key decision Excerpt: “Successful sporulation requires two complete copies of the bacterial chromosome, so coordination between the sporulation decision and the completion of DNA replication is very important,” Narula said. “A good analogy might be a semester-long course in…

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MicroRNA controlled growth and brain development

Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games Nature Communications | Article  Open Excerpt: Here we show that the ideal maximally navigable networks do share some basic structural properties with the Internet, E.coli metabolic network, English word network, US airport network, the Hungarian road network and a structural network of the human brain. Reported as: Researchers find the organization of the human brain to be nearly ideal Excerpt: “An optimal network in the brain would have the smallest number of…

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