fixation

Two types of microRNA are not double agents

Study details microRNA’s role as a double agent during Hep C infection By coopting miRNA-122, the virus appears to alter gene expression in the liver Excerpt: “What if chronic low levels of miRNA-122 prompt changes that, over years, contribute to liver damage and cancer? This could be a molecular link between the viral infection and the pathologies associated with hepatitis C,” Luna says. “More work on miRNA-122 targets in hepatitis C-infected patients may clarify why some go on to develop…

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Epigenetics Skeptism

Thanks to Joost G. Wouters for the alert to this nonsense: 1) Michael White in Pacific Standard magazine flatly states that “Epigenetics Is Not Revolutionizing Biology.” 2) Adrian Bird points out in the journal Cell that many of the field’s assumptions and promises remain unproven and are perhaps excessive. 1) White’s article sketches the field’s promise and hype, from questionable ‪epigenetic‬ diets and wild claims about controlling genes with your thoughts. He follows with a summary of epigenetics, then runs…

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Is DNA-directed transcription RNA-mediated?

Single-cell transcriptogenomics reveals transcriptional exclusion of ENU-mutated alleles. Concluding sentence excerpt: “…rather than a rigid deterministic mechanism, transcription is not hardwired and able to select against potentially adverse changes in the DNA template. Such transcription avoidance may be yet another layer of protection against the detrimental consequences of mutations and provide further clues to understanding its possible consequences, including reduced penetrance and variable expressivity.” Reported as: Rather than being a one-way street, DNA-directed RNA transcription may have profound adaptability Excerpt:…

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Rejecting what is known about viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

Of Cells and Limits Leonard Hayflick has been unafraid to speak his mind, whether it is to upend a well-entrenched dogma or to challenge the federal government. At 86, he’s nowhere near retirement. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 1, 2015 Excerpt: The rejection letter came from Francis Peyton Rous who received the Nobel Prize a few years later for his discovery of chicken tumor viruses. My comment: My 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics detailed how differences in the microRNA/messenger…

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From 3-D to epigenetically-effected 4-D genome make-up

Discoveries in 3-D Genome Make-Up and Genetic Changes: Clarification of differences amidst chromosome pairs and how gene expression is effected by chromosome folding Excerpt: “…offers a useful guide for future studies of the epigenome’s function in our evolution and diseases that beset us.” My comment: The guide is also useful because it shows how the anti-entropic effects of light-induced amino acid substitutions links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in species from microbes to man. For example,…

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Jumping back: Science or Pseudoscience? (2)

See: Jumping back: Science or Pseudoscience? European Science’s Great Leap Backward inferred that evolutionary theory is evidence-based science: Excerpt: “… the U.S. can claim no superiority in our approach to evidence-based science, as demonstrated by the fact that nearly half of the country rejects the “theory” of evolution…” This article attests to the need to substitute evidence-based science: Leading Activist Apologizes For Starting Anti-GMO Movement Excerpt: “But what about mixing genes between unrelated species? The fish and the tomato? Turns…

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Metabolism, fixation, health or neurodegerative disorder

“Shown is the location of the conserved regions encoding for the N-terminal chromo domain and the C-terminal MYST functional domain. An arrow denotes the position site of amino acid substitution E431Q.” Microarray Analysis Uncovers a Role for Tip60 in Nervous System Function and General Metabolism My comment: The article links a nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution via changes in metabolism to cell type differentiation, multicellularity, and brain development in Drosophila. It suggests the substitution is fixed by the model organism’s pheromone-controlled…

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96 fixed amino acid substitutions, not 96 genes

19 December, 2013 – 09:31 april holloway Entire Neanderthal genome finally mapped – with amazing results Excerpt (with my emphasis): “Only 96 genes responsible for making proteins in cells are different between modern humans and Neanderthals. Intriguingly, some of the gene differences involve ones involved in both immune responses and the development of brain cells in people.” “Somewhere within these 96 genes may lay the answer to why Neanderthals and Denisovans became extinct.” Journal article: The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains Excerpt (with…

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Seeds of life: astrobiological theory and mutations theory

Researchers propose new theory to explain seeds of life in asteroids October 1st, 2013 in Space & Earth / Space Exploration Excerpted from above: Both of the established theories – one involving the same radioactive process that heats the interior of Earth, and the other involving the interaction of plasma (super-heated gases that behave somewhat like fluids) and a magnetic field – are still taught to students of astrobiology. My comment: In the context of astrobiological theory and “seeds of…

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