GnRH

A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway

Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Excerpt 1) The accumulation of hypoglycosylated nuclear FGFR1 (nFGFR1) is stimulated by a variety of developmental signals, including various growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters as well as a reduction in cell contact. This is the reason that this pathway is referred to as integrative [1, 15]. Reported as: Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report Summary: New research shows how a single…

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Amino acid-dependent cell type differentiation

mTORC1 is a protein complex that functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. “MCRS1 Binds and Couples Rheb to Amino Acid-Dependent mTORC1 Activation” reported as: Oncogene regulated by nutrients identified A protein that is a molecular link connects Rheb-GTP to mTORC1 activation, lysosomes, and amino acid responses. Depletion of the protein links a chain of interactions to mTORC1 inactivation. The authors address the complexity of the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding, which…

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Nutrient-dependent RNA interference (2)

Cell type differentiation in all genera begins with the recognition of self vs non-self differences such as those we attributed to RNA-mediated pheromone-controlled sex differences in the cell types of species from yeasts to mammals. See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: “Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and…

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Mutisensory integration: watching the paradigm shift

Multisensory integration and causal inference in the brain Excerpt (with my emphasis):  It is largely unknown how the brain implements prior knowledge and expectations. Various mechanisms have been proposed such as spontaneous activity (Berkes et al., 2011), the fraction of neurons encoding a particular feature (Girshick et al., 2011), their response gain and tuning curves or connectivity and top-down projections from higher order areas (Rao and Ballard, 1999).” My comment: The brain implements prior knowledge and expectations through nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled…

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Origin of life and cancer (1,2,3)

1) On the Origins of Life The physics of the light-induced de novo creation of the amino acids was placed into the context of  ‘cyanosulfidic’ protometabolic systems chemistry. The systems chemistry links substitution of achiral glycine in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide to the biophysically constrained nutrient dependent RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding in all vertebrates. The role of food odors and hormone-controlled cell type differentiation in all vertebrates also links changes in the balance of viral microRNAs and…

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The miRNA/mRNA balance: a suboptimal strategy?

Cells exercise suboptimal strategy to survive Excerpt: “Learning the secrets of alternate molecular pathways could provide clues about how to use them to patients’ advantage, she said.” My comment: The same molecular pathways control the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction in all genera. They link RNA-directed DNA methylation to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via fixation of amino acid substitutions that determine cell types. See also: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin “Mechanisms of epistasis are often best revealed through…

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Methylation maintains cell type differences

Female Brain Maintained by Methylation Development of female sexual behaviors requires DNA methylation in the preoptic area of the rodent brain. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 30, 2015 Excerpt: “…programmed during brain development, but how exactly this occurs is not clear. In the preoptic area (POA) of the brain…” My comment: See the section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing…

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2 genes in 2 species (too expensive and too insignificant)

Characterisation of two Neurogenin genes from the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri and their expression in the lamprey nervous system by Ricardo Lara Ramirez et al. Abstract excerpt: “Here we report the isolation of two Neurogenin genes, LpNgnA and LpNgnB, from the lamprey Lampetra planeri. Phylogenetic analyses show both genes have orthologues in other lamprey species and in a hagfish.” My comment: “…the identity of a single functional GPH [glycoprotein hormone] of the hagfish, hagfish GTH, provides critical evidence for the…

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