GnRH

Controled Stem Cell Expansion

Serine … is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. [It]… is classified as a polar amino acid. My comment: Serine synthesis in the body is linked to glycine, which also may be naturally produced when UV light illuminates simple ices (e.g., combinations of water, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). That suggested to some people that glycine and other amino acids may be easily produced in cold regions of space, and the suggestion, like virtually all suggestions, seems to be believable…

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Olfaction & the octopus and human genomes

Secrets of the Deep: Scientists Sequence Genome of Octopus for First Time Excerpt: The genome was arranged differently than in other invertebrates and featured an expansion in a family of genes regulating nerve cell development that previously was thought to be enlarged only in vertebrates. My comment: RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link nutrient-dependent thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation to RNA-mediated  organism level thermoregulation in bacteria, yeasts, insects, marine invertebrates such as octopuses,  mammals, humans…

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Epigenetic regulation of aging by glycine and GnRH

Summary:  “…the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.” My comment: The broad-based extension of the fact that aging is epigenetically controlled, extends everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation across the life history transitions of all genera. The focus here is on vertebrates,…

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A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway

Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Excerpt 1) The accumulation of hypoglycosylated nuclear FGFR1 (nFGFR1) is stimulated by a variety of developmental signals, including various growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters as well as a reduction in cell contact. This is the reason that this pathway is referred to as integrative [1, 15]. Reported as: Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report Summary: New research shows how a single…

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Amino acid-dependent cell type differentiation

mTORC1 is a protein complex that functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis. “MCRS1 Binds and Couples Rheb to Amino Acid-Dependent mTORC1 Activation” reported as: Oncogene regulated by nutrients identified A protein that is a molecular link connects Rheb-GTP to mTORC1 activation, lysosomes, and amino acid responses. Depletion of the protein links a chain of interactions to mTORC1 inactivation. The authors address the complexity of the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding, which…

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Nutrient-dependent RNA interference (2)

Cell type differentiation in all genera begins with the recognition of self vs non-self differences such as those we attributed to RNA-mediated pheromone-controlled sex differences in the cell types of species from yeasts to mammals. See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: “Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and…

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Mutisensory integration: watching the paradigm shift

Multisensory integration and causal inference in the brain Excerpt (with my emphasis):  It is largely unknown how the brain implements prior knowledge and expectations. Various mechanisms have been proposed such as spontaneous activity (Berkes et al., 2011), the fraction of neurons encoding a particular feature (Girshick et al., 2011), their response gain and tuning curves or connectivity and top-down projections from higher order areas (Rao and Ballard, 1999).” My comment: The brain implements prior knowledge and expectations through nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled…

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Origin of life and cancer (1,2,3)

1) On the Origins of Life The physics of the light-induced de novo creation of the amino acids was placed into the context of  ‘cyanosulfidic’ protometabolic systems chemistry. The systems chemistry links substitution of achiral glycine in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide to the biophysically constrained nutrient dependent RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding in all vertebrates. The role of food odors and hormone-controlled cell type differentiation in all vertebrates also links changes in the balance of viral microRNAs and…

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