GnRH

Mutisensory integration: watching the paradigm shift

Multisensory integration and causal inference in the brain Excerpt (with my emphasis):  It is largely unknown how the brain implements prior knowledge and expectations. Various mechanisms have been proposed such as spontaneous activity (Berkes et al., 2011), the fraction of neurons encoding a particular feature (Girshick et al., 2011), their response gain and tuning curves or connectivity and top-down projections from higher order areas (Rao and Ballard, 1999).” My comment: The brain implements prior knowledge and expectations through nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled…

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Origin of life and cancer (1,2,3)

1) On the Origins of Life The physics of the light-induced de novo creation of the amino acids was placed into the context of  ‘cyanosulfidic’ protometabolic systems chemistry. The systems chemistry links substitution of achiral glycine in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide to the biophysically constrained nutrient dependent RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding in all vertebrates. The role of food odors and hormone-controlled cell type differentiation in all vertebrates also links changes in the balance of viral microRNAs and…

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The miRNA/mRNA balance: a suboptimal strategy?

Cells exercise suboptimal strategy to survive Excerpt: “Learning the secrets of alternate molecular pathways could provide clues about how to use them to patients’ advantage, she said.” My comment: The same molecular pathways control the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction in all genera. They link RNA-directed DNA methylation to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via fixation of amino acid substitutions that determine cell types. See also: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin “Mechanisms of epistasis are often best revealed through…

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Methylation maintains cell type differences

Female Brain Maintained by Methylation Development of female sexual behaviors requires DNA methylation in the preoptic area of the rodent brain. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 30, 2015 Excerpt: “…programmed during brain development, but how exactly this occurs is not clear. In the preoptic area (POA) of the brain…” My comment: See the section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing…

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2 genes in 2 species (too expensive and too insignificant)

Characterisation of two Neurogenin genes from the brook lamprey Lampetra planeri and their expression in the lamprey nervous system by Ricardo Lara Ramirez et al. Abstract excerpt: “Here we report the isolation of two Neurogenin genes, LpNgnA and LpNgnB, from the lamprey Lampetra planeri. Phylogenetic analyses show both genes have orthologues in other lamprey species and in a hagfish.” My comment: “…the identity of a single functional GPH [glycoprotein hormone] of the hagfish, hagfish GTH, provides critical evidence for the…

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RNA-directed gene choice

March 2015: ChemoSense; see Timothy S. McClintock: “Odorant Receptor Gene Choice” He concludes: “The epigenetic control of OR gene expression through repression and de-repression is a remarkable story, and as a fundamental mechanism intimately associated with the random differentiation of a neural progenitor cell into multiple neuronal subtypes, one wonders whether it might be a framework for understanding other instances of differentiation of neural subtypes (Lyons and Lomvardas, 2014).” My comment: The epigenetic control of OR gene expression is RNA-directed…

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Quantum Superpositions: let there be light

Ideal Negative Measurements in Quantum Walks Disprove Theories Based on Classical Trajectories Reported as: Atoms can be in two places at the same time Excerpt: “This is not yet a proof that quantum mechanics hold for large objects,” cautions Alberti. My comment: I framed my comments and a question in the context of this article on physics. Their claim of a possible size limit on quantum superpositions seemed to divorce top-down causation from cell–cell communication in mammals. That suggested there…

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Model organisms: the birds and the bees

Bird Genomes Abound Scientists complete the largest-ever comparative genomic study of birds. By Ruth Williams | December 11, 2014 Excerpt: “Birds are model organisms for a number of human behaviors and conditions—For example, Jarvis compares vocal learning in birds and humans—so determining the genetic basis of such traits requires genetic history.” My comment: Honeybees are model organisms for “…human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reaction, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, the development of the brain and behavior, mental health, longevity, diseases of…

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Chemical ecology and RNA-mediated control of DNA loops

DNA Loop-the-Loops A new full-genome map indicates how DNA is folded within the nuclei of human cells.By Kate Yandell | December 11, 2014 Excerpt: “…many loops were conserved among cell types, and even between mice and humans. But others seemed to drive cell type-specific gene expression patterns.” My comment to The Scientist Magazine: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Excerpt: “A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for…

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Atoms to ecosystems: Evolutionary theory vs the coelacanth

Biodiversity: Life ­– a status report “Species are disappearing quickly — but researchers are struggling to assess how bad the problem is.” I want to eliminate some of the researcher’s struggles, but a moderator at Nature has blocked all my comments for several months, perhaps permanently. I think my past comments on articles, like this one, explain why other comments are blocked. In the past, I commented each time I saw a misrepresentation of biologically-based cause and effect. The misrepresentations…

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