honeybee

Energy-dependent alternative splicings 1996 – 2016

Highlights: 1) Alternative splicings of messenger RNA link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy as information to DNA repair. 2) DNA repair links fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA to healthy longevity. 3) Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. 4) Genomic entropy is less likely to occur in the context of the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of ecologically adapted morphological and behavioral phenotypes. 5) Preventing virus-driven energy theft from…

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Genes, orchid odors, and pheromones from blonds

1) The Genetics of Blond Hair (2014) and 2) Orchids give off human ‘body odor’ to attract mosquitoes (2016) Both articles link RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all invertebrates and all vertebrates to every aspect of cell type differentiation in plants. …studies of genetic variation in thousands of people have linked at least eight DNA regions to blondness based on the fact that a certain DNA letter, or base, was found in people with that hair color but not in…

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“New” epigenetic mechanism for lifelong learning?

Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity Reported as: Lifelong learning is made possible by recycling of histones, study says Also reported as: New epigenetic mechanism revealed in brain cells Excerpt: In humans, researchers used a technique called 14C/12C bomb pulse dating to measure turnover. The technique is based on the fact that high levels of radioactive carbon (14C) were released into the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s, when open-air nuclear bomb testing occurred following the…

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“First” evidence

First evidence of how parents’ lives could change children’s DNA 17:00 04 June 2015 by Helen Thomson Excerpts: Surani’s team analysed methylation patterns in a type of fetal cell that later forms a fetus’s own sperm or eggs. We would expect these cells to have been wiped clean when the fetus’s epigenome was reset at the early embryo stage. “However, about 2 to 5 per cent of methylation across the genome escaped this reprogramming,” says Surani. Marcus Pembrey, emeritus professor…

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Pattern recognition: biogeochemical structure and function

Microbes Effect on the Brain Excerpt: Recent research shows dramatic effects of microbe products from the gut on mental function—depression, stress, autism, and degenerative illness. In humans, many studies show microbes affect anxiety, mood, depression and social behavior. Direct effects are through secreted products, stimulation of the enteric nervous system and travel of microbes into the brain, while indirect factors are microbes’ influence on immune function affecting behavior. Microbes produce molecules that transform into hormones and neurotransmitters or they produce…

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Batch effect vs epigenetic effects

A reanalysis of mouse ENCODE comparative gene expression data [awaiting peer review] was reported as: Batch Effect Behind Species-Specific Results? Excerpt: genes in the mouse heart were expressed in a pattern more similar to that of other mouse tissues, such as the brain or liver, than the human heart. My comment: If that was an accurate representation of biologically-based cause and effect, it could not be supported by what is currently known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-depenent pheromone-controlled…

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Gene expression, immortality, and cancer

Collaborative research team solves cancer-cell mutation mystery Excerpt: TERT stabilizes chromosomes by elongating the protective element at the end of each chromosome in a cell. …cells harboring these mutations aberrantly increase TERT expression, effectively making them immortal. My comment: To an evolutionary theorist, this might suggest that protein folding instability is beneficial. For example, see: “Mutation-Driven Evolution” Excerpt:  …genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.…

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Bees and primates automagically evolve

The Evolution of Social Bees Excerpt: …one key feature of increased sociality is an elaboration of gene regulation capacity. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) Excerpt: …odor perception is more akin to the immune system workings where multitudes of receptors are each uniquely responsive to chemical structures (Bartoshuk and Beauchamp, 1994; Buck and Axel, 1991). Moreover, these receptor proteins are chemically and structurally similar to those that bind neurotransmitters and hormones (Buck and Axel, 1991). See also:…

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A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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