honeybee

MicroRNAs and memory

Diet rich in methionine may promote memory loss Excerpt: “We are looking further into epigenetic factors like microRNA and other downstream genes that could be associated with memory loss.” See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (an invited review of nutritional epigenetic) Abstract excerpt: “This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The…

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RNA-directed gene choice

March 2015: ChemoSense; see Timothy S. McClintock: “Odorant Receptor Gene Choice” He concludes: “The epigenetic control of OR gene expression through repression and de-repression is a remarkable story, and as a fundamental mechanism intimately associated with the random differentiation of a neural progenitor cell into multiple neuronal subtypes, one wonders whether it might be a framework for understanding other instances of differentiation of neural subtypes (Lyons and Lomvardas, 2014).” My comment: The epigenetic control of OR gene expression is RNA-directed…

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Rejecting what is known about viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

Of Cells and Limits Leonard Hayflick has been unafraid to speak his mind, whether it is to upend a well-entrenched dogma or to challenge the federal government. At 86, he’s nowhere near retirement. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 1, 2015 Excerpt: The rejection letter came from Francis Peyton Rous who received the Nobel Prize a few years later for his discovery of chicken tumor viruses. My comment: My 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics detailed how differences in the microRNA/messenger…

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Imagining that data historically supports evolutionary theory

1) Arguments in the evo-devo debate: say it with flowers! Abstract excerpt: A key question in evolutionary developmental biology is how DNA sequence changes have directed the evolution of morphological diversity. The widely accepted view was that morphological changes resulted from differences in number and/or type of transcription factors, or even from small changes in the amino acid sequence of similar proteins. My comment: This is the first time I have seen anyone claim that the “…small changes in the…

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Chemical ecology and RNA-mediated control of DNA loops

DNA Loop-the-Loops A new full-genome map indicates how DNA is folded within the nuclei of human cells.By Kate Yandell | December 11, 2014 Excerpt: “…many loops were conserved among cell types, and even between mice and humans. But others seemed to drive cell type-specific gene expression patterns.” My comment to The Scientist Magazine: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Excerpt: “A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for…

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One test of bioenergetic health?

Success of new-generation metabolo-therapies in personalized medicine depends on measuring bioenergetic health Excerpt: “In one test, a comprehensive measure of energetic health, or its disease-related deterioration, can now be made. The prognostic and diagnostic value of bioenergetic measurements in patients is still unknown, but recent findings support an emerging concept that circulating leukocytes and platelets can serve as the “canary in the coal mine” by acting as early sensors or predictive biomarkers of metabolic function under conditions of chronic stress…

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Epigenetic pharmacology and RNA-mediated transciptional landscapes

Last year, Vosshall’s group eliminated ideas about the involvement of beneficial mutations in the nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation of mosquitoes. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET. This year her group showed that nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions clearly are involved in cell type differentiation. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor RNA-mediated events have since been linked to sexual dimorphism in mosquitoes. Examination of the genetic basis for sexual…

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RNA-mediated events and "The Theory of Everything"

The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time Co-author George F.R. Ellis won the 2004 Templeton Prize People like him are likely to recognize the top-down link from light-induced de novo creation of nucleic acids and nutrient-dependendent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to epigenetically-effected neuronal structure and function. In my model, light-induced amino acid substitutions are linked to the nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all organisms. Neuronal cell type differentiation is linked to behavior. See…

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Thermodynamic constraints and ecological adaptations sans evolution

Relationship between protein thermodynamic constraints and variation of evolutionary rates among sites Excerpt: “…a two-variable model that combines stability and stress signi ficantly improves predictions. Therefore, both the overall stability [symbol] and the stress [symbol] seem to capture distinct thermodynamic constraints on protein evolution.” My comment: Proteins do not evolve. Nutrients are required. Metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones controls the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction enables epistasis via nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA…

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Eliminating correlations from evolutionary ecology

De novo creation of olfactory receptor genes clearly links food odors via amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in mosquitoes, and in nematodes, flies, honeybees, etc. It would be surprising if cause and effect did not extend to vertebrates from invertebrates. Indeed, Elekonich and Robinson (2000) linked our 1996 model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavior in insects more than a decade ago. Since then, Vosshall’s lab has established the role that amino acid substitutions…

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