immune system

microRNA-mediated election cycles (6)

Hyperglycaemia Induces Trained Immunity in Macrophages and Their Precursors and Promotes Atherosclerosis 7/13/21 Conclusions: Hyperglycaemia-induced trained immunity… suggests new targets for disease prevention and therapy. Reported on 7/14/21 as High blood sugar levels ‘reprogram’ stem cells Our study is the first to show that diabetes causes long-term changes to the immune system… By focussing too narrowly on a managing a person’s blood sugar levels we’re only addressing part of the problem. Every intelligent serious scientist in the world already knows…

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For God and Country

Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (5)

Summary: If a player starts with evolution instead of the creation of energy that links ATP to the creation of RNA, the player is a loser. Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull Secular: Ancient Viruses Are Buried in Your DNA (2017) by…

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Energy-dependent oscillating gene networks organize life

Nascent, innate, intrinsic, and biofunctional are among the “weasel words” used by theorists who ignore the fact that all life-sustaining energy comes from the sun via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. See how Jon Lieff continues to misrepresent that fact, by placing everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation back into the context of evolution. Like all pseudoscientists, he starts with energy but fails to mention where the energy came from or where it goes when virus-driven…

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Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy

The “Antiphage Defense Strategy” in Vibrio anguillarum is called autophagy by many serious scientists. It links nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing to viral latency, healthy longevity, symbiosis, reproduction, and biodiversity from microbial species to humans. For an evolutionary approach to energy-dependent autophagy that fails to address any aspect of how virus-driven energy theft causes all pathology see: (12/7/16) Part I: Living together: The symbiosis of host-microbial interactions (12/7/16) See also: 12/7/16 ….McFall-Ngai tells the story of a symbiosis between the…

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Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy (2)

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanisms (2010) Conclusion: … autophagy has emerged as a new and potent modulator of disease progression that is both scientifically intriguing and clinically relevant. My comment: Autophagy is energy-dependent and linked to supercoiled DNA by epigenetic effects on the innate immune system, which are linked to the physiology of energy-dependent reproduction. If you think that the innate immune system automagically “emerged,” you might also think that autophagy has automagically emerged as the…

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Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy (2) The Excitable Mitochondria links 4 neurons from a nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled network in a marine invertebrate to human brain development via the conserved molecular mechanisms that link the speed of light on contact with water to the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).  Receptor-mediated species -specific chromatin remodeling links chromosomal rearrangements to all biodiversity via energy-dependent chemotaxis and phototaxis. See: The central pattern generator underlying swimming in Dendronotus iris: a simple half-center…

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Exosomes, Inflammatory Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment

See also How did the innate immune system evolve? By now, all theorists should know what “innate” means.  It means the immune system did not evolve. It is an energy-dependent ecological adaptation in all living genera. It typically protects all organized genomes from virus-driven inflammation and disease. The Role of Exosomes in Inflammatory Disease: Pathogenesis and Treatment Thursday September 22, 2016 2:30 – 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time Exosomes encapsulate and transport a wide variety of molecules generated by their cell-of-origin,…

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Pseudoscientists ignore what serious scientists prove

Earlier today (8/14/16) I challenged a friend who stated that “scientists claim 65 million years of natural selection led from the demise of the dinosaurs to the evolution of humans.” I ineffectively tried to explain the difference between the claims of scientists, which are based on experimental evidence, and the claims of pseudoscientists, which are based on pseudoscientific nonsense. Last week, this same friend asked where the energy comes from that is released when hydrogen atoms are split. How did…

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Biophysically constrained cell type differentiation

Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk Excerpt: A paradigmatic example is that of the aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase1, which uses kinetic proofreading2 to load appropriate amino acids onto matching tRNAs. This and other examples—including DNA replication, ligand sensing3, protein–protein interactions4,5,6,7,8,9, recognition events in the immune system10,11 and molecular self-assembly12—indicate that biology places a large premium on the reduction of unintended ‘crosstalk’, a generic term that encompasses all potentially disruptive processes due to reactions between non-cognate substrates. Reported as:…

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Energy-dependent RNA methylation (1)

“How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” — Roger Penrose “We know, for instance, when we eat food nucleic acids can get into our cells. Also, there is a theory that our cells in the body keep sending out nucleic acids and one theory has it that it seems to correct the mistakes that other cells have suffered…

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