miRNA

An evolutionary theory killer

Biologically uninformed science idiot: Self-defense (3)

Summary: No ecosystems exist at any level of examination outside the context of the anti-entropic virucidal energy of light-activated endogenous substrates in all cell types of all living genera. The quantized energy-dependent creation of nucleotides links the creation of sunlight to fixation of energy in every organism on Earth.  Fixation of the energy is microRNA-mediated. The energy-dependent creation of microRNAs has been linked to healthy longevity via direct effects on organized genomes. For example, microRNAs typically biophysically constrain viral latency.…

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An evolutionary theory killer

A reversible TCA cycle in a thermophile (3)

A pathway for mitotic chromosome formation The combination of nested loops distributed around a helically twisted axis plus dense chromatin packing achieves the 10,000-fold compaction of chromatin into linearly organized chromosomes that is required for accurate chromosome segregation when cells divide. The compaction of chromatin in the context of hydrophobicity is the topic of: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural…

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Open Science: Closed to facts about microRNAs

See my 5-part series on: The tipping point? 50, 000 publications Imagine how we could accelerate innovation, stimulate economic growth and all the solutions we need to live on a healthy and sustainable planet, if we were to open up our science fully and allow a free flow of scientific knowledge.” says Kamila Markram, a neuroscientist and the CEO of Frontiers, one of the largest Open Access science publishers in the world and a leader in the Open Science movement.…

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Cytosis: Biology content (2)

Cytosis is a [energy-dependent] transport mechanism for the movement of large quantities of molecules into and out of cells. There are three main types of cytosis: endocytosis (into the cell), exocytosis (out of the cell), and transcytosis (through the cell, in and out). See also: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game 3/27/17 See also: Cytosis: Biology Content 4/4/17 Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game  4/12/17 A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones…

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Energy-dependent coulombic, autophagic, polycombic healthy longevity

Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. See also this excerpt: Disorders in energy creation by mitochondria can cause cellular degeneration… Mitochondria do not create energy.  They link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via biophysically constrained DNA repair. Energy-dependent autophagy links mitophagy to supercoiled DNA via the innate immune system and RNA-mediated repair of damaged DNA. Repair is nutrient-energy dependent. Separating mitophagy from autophagy is one way to prevent people…

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Anthetical conclusions (2)

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) …ribosomal proteins S4X and S4Y (rpS4X, rpS4Y) are produced by sexually dimorphic genes whose protein products are sexually dimorphic. This suggests the possibility of subtle nuances in the ribosomal translation of at least some mRNA, in certain cell types (Fisher et al.,1990; Zinn et al., 1994). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster…

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Amino acids and virus penetration

For an example of the ocean of information you must swim through to get to an important fact about virus-driven energy theft and all pathology, see: The bacteriophage ϕ29 tail possesses a pore-forming loop for cell membrane penetration (June 15, 2016) They cite “PrDOS: prediction of disordered protein regions from amino acid sequence” (2007). Excerpt: We have also developed a system to predict disordered regions from the amino acid sequence. Our system is composed of two predictors, that is, a…

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Protosuns, prebiotic molecules, proteins, and people

Excerpt: “We have detected formamide in five protosuns, which proves that this molecule (in all probability also true for our Solar System) is relatively abundant in molecular clouds and is formed in the very early stages of evolution towards a star and its planets…” My comment: Finding a molecule in five or more protsuns proves nothing about the early stages of evolution. An intelligent person might ask how proteins ‘evolved” from prebiotic molecules to people, after stars and planets “evolved.”…

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microRNAs, glycosylation, and genomes

Summary: Given what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera, it may be impossible for theorists to link mutations to evolution via glycosylation. miRNA proxy approach reveals hidden functions of glycosylation Abstract excerpt: Glycosylation, the most abundant posttranslational modification, holds an unprecedented capacity for altering biological function. Journal article excerpt: …glycans play a role in every major disease (1), and there are clinical examples of drugs targeting glycosylation enzymes… suggesting that glycosylation enzymes may provide fallow…

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Missing a fact: microRNAs are genomic biomarkers

Summary: The nutrient-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance links virus-induced entropic elasticity and the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation to everything that is currently known about RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The substitutions differentiate the cell types of all genera. That fact is not being reported in most of the extant literature on healthy longevity and/or pathology. Here is another example of the failure to report facts about biologically-based cause and effect. Note, specifically, this…

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