morphological

Dobzhansky 1973 and precision medicine

MicroRNA-34 directly targets pair-rule genes and cytoskeleton component in the honey bee Our findings point to miR-34-5p as novel regulatory component in the complex molecular cascade that governs insect segmentation and to a broader role of miRNAs in the early development due to the detection of mature transcripts from both 5p and 3p arms for several precursor miRNAs. Thus, this work encourages further investigation to pinpoint miRNAs as fine tuners of insect early development. Anna Di Cosmo‘s group took the…

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Epigenetics and autophagy vs mutations and evolution (6)

Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle Conclusion: The early formation of the limb skeleton is often assumed to be well known from ‘classic’ published lines of work using traditional techniques and model species. However, it is worth revising this basic information. New methods and better taxon sampling can provide increased detail and substantial revision, with important evolutionary implications. In addition to the fossil record, reliable embryological data from birds are important to understand their evolution from…

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MicroRNAs and sexual orientation

A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans Excerpt: We anticipate the identification of a core neural circuit for sexual preferences to be a starting point for further sophisticated investigations into the neural principles of sexual behavior and particularly of its aberrations. My comment: They link sexual orientation in yeasts to humans but fail to recognize the fact that it is nutrient energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled by RNA methylation, the innate immune system, and supercoiled DNA. 20 years after we published…

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The tipping point? 50, 000 publications (2)

Pubmed.com “microRNA” Hedgehog signaling enables nutrition-responsive inhibition of an alternative morph in a polyphenic beetle Excerpt: Significance Complex, nongradual responses to environmental conditions are commonplace in nature and perhaps most extreme in polyphenic insects where continuous variation in nutrition experienced in early development gives rise to discrete alternative castes or morphs. This research shows that the hedgehog (Hh) pathway has acquired a novel and highly unusual role in the nutrition-dependent regulation of polyphenic development of a beetle. Experimental repression of…

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The radical pair mechanism of ecological speciation

The radical pair mechanism and the avian chemical compass: Quantum coherence and entanglement Excerpt: Radical pairs are usually produced as short-lived intermediates through decomposition, electron transfer, or hydrogen transfer reactions from singlet or triplet excited states. My comment: The radical pair mechanism appears to be another link from nutrient energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecological speciation. However, the hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs mechanism seems to have gone unrecognized despite this report. Induction of micronuclei and superoxide production…

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Another failed rescue attempt

Social Darwinism, A Case of Designed Ventriloquism Excerpt:  In Wilson’s view, Social Darwinism “is perhaps the most important example of a term that became tainted and needs to be rescued.” According to him, from the very beginning, this term “was used as a pejorative to brand laissez faire policies that Darwin did not endorse. My comment: Darwin knew nothing about genetics. He stressed the fact that “conditions of life” must be placed before natural selection. Others ignored that fact and…

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A two-faced protein enables RNA-mediated DNA repair (4)

See also: A two-faced protein enables RNA-mediated DNA repair (3) The importance of DNA repair to heritability cannot be understated. Theorists who think in terms of mutations and evolution are biologically uninformed and may never have learned anything about DNA repair. Serious scientists are overloaded with information and are not likely to try to explain facts about biologically based cause and effect to theorists. November, 2015 An individual-based diploid model predicts limited conditions under which stochastic gene expression becomes advantageous My…

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Stress-perturbed mitochondrial dysfunction

Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress Excerpt: To visualize the stress-reactive profiles across genotypes, a heat map with hierarchical clustering of the mean relative difference “stress–resting” was generated, demonstrating that each mitochondrial defect induced a different amino acid response signature (Fig. 4F). In particular, the stress-reactive amino acid profile was most distinct in mice with the respiratory chain complex I ND6 defect. To determine which class of amino acids was most discriminatory between…

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Cell type differentiation: atoms to ecosystems

Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees Abstract conclusion: A major result of increased plasticity is that the development of neural circuits that underlie behavior is shaped by the environmental, social, and cultural context more intensively in humans than in other primate species, thus providing an anatomical basis for behavioral and cognitive evolution. Reported as: Nature and nurture: Human brains evolved to be more responsive to environmental influences Excerpt: …the morphology of the human cerebral…

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Controled Stem Cell Expansion

Serine … is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. [It]… is classified as a polar amino acid. My comment: Serine synthesis in the body is linked to glycine, which also may be naturally produced when UV light illuminates simple ices (e.g., combinations of water, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). That suggested to some people that glycine and other amino acids may be easily produced in cold regions of space, and the suggestion, like virtually all suggestions, seems to be believable…

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