natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality

Functionally interdependent editing and methylation

Editing and methylation at a single site by functionally interdependent activities …cytosine 32 in the anticodon loop of Trypanosoma brucei tRNAThr is methylated to 3-methylcytosine (m3C) as a pre-requisite for C-to-U deamination. Formation of m3C in vitro requires the presence of both the T. brucei m3C methyltransferase TRM140 and the deaminase ADAT2/3. Once formed, m3C is deaminated to 3-methyluridine (m3U) by the same set of enzymes. ADAT2/3 is a highly mutagenic enzyme4, but we also show that when co-expressed with…

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Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (sequel)

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution See also: Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA Conclusion: Our work demonstrates one can introduce an active control to DNA conductance by modifying a base with a redox group, and switch the DNA conductance reversibly between two levels by oxidizing or reducing the redox group with an EC gate. This strategy could be implemented in more sophisticated DNA nanostructures for active device building blocks. As the DNA conductance is an indicator of the molecule in…

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Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution

See: Bill Gates refutes theistic evolution (prequel) See for comparison: Our 2017 Annual Letter Warren Buffett’s Best Investment By Bill and Melinda Gates | February 14, 2017 Malnourished children can be getting enough calories, but not the right nutrients. That makes them more susceptible to conditions like pneumonia or diarrhea—and more likely to die from them. If malnourished children are not getting the right nutrients, they focused too much on vaccines and not enough on what is known about nutritional…

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George Church refutes theistic evolution

Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series (WALS) – The future of genetic codes and BRAIN codes The NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, colloquially known as WALS, is the highest-profile lecture program at the NIH. The future of genetic codes and BRAIN codes (video) My comment on the video: Biophysically constrained genetic codes are brain codes. They link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA via metabolic networks, which link energy as information to all cell type differentiation in…

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