nutrient-dependent

How did the innate immune system evolve?

Sexually Antagonistic Male Signals Manipulate Germline and Soma of C. elegans Hermaphrodites Abstract excerpt: Why would a system exist that reduces the vigor of potential mates prior to mating? Addressing this question could provide insights into mechanisms and evolution of sexual conflict and reveal sensory inputs that regulate aging. Highlights excerpt: An unknown signal accelerates larval development, specifically the onset of puberty Reported as: Male chemistry primes females for reproduction—but at a cost “There is a fine balance between reproduction and…

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Non-random pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation

Experience-Dependent Plasticity Drives Individual Differences in Pheromone-Sensing Neurons Aug 17, 2016   •Individual differences in cell types are not random •Sex differences in pheromone-sensing neurons are controlled by experience •Changes in specific cell types are governed via “use it and lose it” plasticity •Targeting plasticity to specific cell types changes animal behavior This was reported as: Long-term exposure to female scents changes courtship behavior in male mice The senior author co-authored Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates neural coding…

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Biophotonics, glycobiology, quantized biodiversity (3)

Biophotonics, glycobiology, quantized biodiversity Biophotonics, glycobiology, quantized biodiversity (2) Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability Excerpt: We therefore propose a model whereby, similar to neurons, astrocytes respond directly to a plethora of nutrient and endocrine signals and, in turn, contribute to adjusting CNS control of systemic metabolism according to nutrient availability. My comment: They reassert the fact that my model is the only model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation, and finally also dismiss the pseudoscientific nonsense…

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Biophysically constrained cell type differentiation

Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk Excerpt: A paradigmatic example is that of the aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase1, which uses kinetic proofreading2 to load appropriate amino acids onto matching tRNAs. This and other examples—including DNA replication, ligand sensing3, protein–protein interactions4,5,6,7,8,9, recognition events in the immune system10,11 and molecular self-assembly12—indicate that biology places a large premium on the reduction of unintended ‘crosstalk’, a generic term that encompasses all potentially disruptive processes due to reactions between non-cognate substrates. Reported as:…

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From angstroms to ecosystems

How a happy moment for neuroscience is a sad moment for science Systems neuroscience is celebrating a landmark, but one that shows the way we do science is broken. Excerpt: These data are the first complete set of neural activity recordings released before publication. No papers preceded it; not even a report. Nothing. Just: here you go guys, the fruits of the joint labour of around 100 people over 4 years.” My comment: They released the information on June 13,…

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Food supplement or licensed immunostimulant?

Glucan from Food Supplement to a Licensed Drug   Excerpt: “…β-glucan possesses a significant immunostimulating activity in a wide variety of species, including earthworms, shrimp, fish, chicken, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs, cattle, and, last but not least, humans. Based on these results, it has been concluded that β-glucan represents a type of immunostimulanting molecule that is actively spanning full evolutionary spectrum. Some experiments also show that β-glucan can help even in the protection of plants. β-Glucan is therefore…

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Q and A: Energy-dependent cell type differentiation

Richard Lenski and other theorists will not discuss the amount of pseudoscientific nonsense they have included in their ridiculous claims. Rarely does anyone else attempt to unravel their claims in the context of the reports I will cite below, or in other reports that refute ridiculous neo-Darwinian theories. Recently, however, Greg Thurston made an honorable effort to learn about energy-dependent biophysically constrained cause and effect via a series of questions that could be answered with minimal jargon. Q and A…

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Virus-driven downsizing of the human brain

Empty Seats as Zoologists Hog Royal Society Stage Excerpt: … they made sure to exclude, for instance, experts on viruses — the largest part of the biosphere — at a time when Zika continues to prove it can downsize the human brain in a flash and could have done the reverse at some point in evolutionary time. My comment: At all points in “evolutionary time,” virus-driven energy theft can be linked to all pathology and nutrient energy-dependent RNA methylation can…

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Major transition ends use of silly theories

Major transitions in human evolution This theme issue focuses on key evolutionary transitions to understand the interaction of biology, behaviour, culture and environment. This issue is dedicated to Richard Leakey, whose critical discoveries have provided evidence for many of the key phases, and who has inspired much of the work discussed here. This issue is based on a joint Royal Society and British Academy discussion meeting held in October 2015. This issue is now available to read online. Reported as:…

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RNA methylation

This is a brief history of events that led me to found the domain RNA-mediated.com with some follow-up on the latest news about cell type differentiation In 2012, I attended this minisymposium 006.Transcribing Memories: New Mechanisms of Activity-Regulated Gene Expression and Their Roles in Experience-Dependent Plasticity. Description: Activity-regulated gene transcription is essential for orchestrating the gene expression programs that drive experience-dependent plasticity of neural circuits. Recent studies have not only vastly expanded our understanding of the mechanisms that mediate activity-regulated…

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