pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent purifying selection / autophagy (4)

Energy-dependent purifying selection / autophagy (3) My question: What is an abiotic environment? See: “abiotic factors found in aquatic systems may be things like water depth, pH, sunlight, turbidity (amount of water cloudiness), salinity (salt concentration), available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, etc.), and dissolved oxygen (amount of oxygen dissolved in the water). Abiotic variables found in terrestrial ecosystems can include things like rain, wind, temperature, altitude, soil, pollution, nutrients, pH, types of soil, and sunlight.“ My question: When did Schrodinger’s negative…

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Epigenetics and autophagy vs mutations and evolution (2)

Plants send light to roots to ‘see’ underground My comment: Sending light requires an energy-dependent link from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organanized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. See Schrodinger (1944) Excerpt: Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as…

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From Precis to Proof in 6000 years (2)

See: From Precis to Proof in 6000 years Why now? See from 2014 Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution‘ Excerpt: “…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.” See also: President Obama on Atheism We have since seen the rise of claims about natural information processing link energy-dependent changes to healthy longevity in species from microbes to…

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Polycombic ecological adaptation as a science, not a theory (2)

Evolutionary Constraints in the β-Globin Cluster: The Signature of Purifying Selection at the δ-Globin (HBD) Locus and Its Role in Developmental Gene Regulation Conclusion: … the results here presented indicate that purifying selection is driving not only HBD evolution but also its neighbor pseudogene, HBBP1. In the light of recent advances in the characterization of the β-globin cluster, we propose that the complex patterns of diversity observed in this genomic region arose from distinct functional constraints related with the intricate…

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80 years of causal analysis (1936 – 2016)

Roles of Mutation and Selection in Speciation: From Hugo de Vries [1902 definition of mutation] to the Modern Genomic Era Excerpt: …mutation is crucial in speciation because reproductive barriers cannot be generated without mutations. My comment: Chromosomal rearrangements link autophagy from energy-dependent changes in RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and supercoiled DNA to all biodiversity via speciation. Some Principles of Causal Analysis in Genetics (1936) Extract: …high frequency radiation and particles of high velocity are very important components of the environment,…

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How did the innate immune system evolve?

Sexually Antagonistic Male Signals Manipulate Germline and Soma of C. elegans Hermaphrodites Abstract excerpt: Why would a system exist that reduces the vigor of potential mates prior to mating? Addressing this question could provide insights into mechanisms and evolution of sexual conflict and reveal sensory inputs that regulate aging. Highlights excerpt: An unknown signal accelerates larval development, specifically the onset of puberty Reported as: Male chemistry primes females for reproduction—but at a cost “There is a fine balance between reproduction and…

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Plant microRNAs slow virus-driven aging

Six plant extracts delay yeast chronological aging through different signaling pathways The evolutionarily conserved nutrient-sensing signaling pathways that accelerate chronological aging in yeast (Figure 9) are known to stimulate chronological senescence and geroconversion of post-mitotic human cells; these pathways are likely to expedite organismal aging and cancer development in humans [87-93]. There is no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that starts with the conservation of nutrient-sensing pathways. The nutrient-sensing pathways link the de novo creation of G protein-coupled…

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Antithetical conclusions (4)

Evidence for sex-specific genetic architectures across a spectrum of human complex traits …will need to disentangle whether sex genetic heterogeneity may arise as a consequence of interactions with genetic loci located on the sex chromosomes, differences in gene control due to differences in the sex-specific cellular environment, or more general differences in environmental exposures between the sexes. Nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled sex differences in the cell types of species from yeasts to humans link changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and…

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Anthetical conclusions (2)

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) …ribosomal proteins S4X and S4Y (rpS4X, rpS4Y) are produced by sexually dimorphic genes whose protein products are sexually dimorphic. This suggests the possibility of subtle nuances in the ribosomal translation of at least some mRNA, in certain cell types (Fisher et al.,1990; Zinn et al., 1994). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster…

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Half truths support theories without facts

How to lie by telling the truth Excerpt: People… trot out half-truths, in full expectation and knowledge that they will create a false impression. And then, when others act on the false impression, the “truth-telling liars” can sit back and pretend that they aren’t liars. They get the benefit of lying, without any damage to their precious self-image. My comment: It is more difficult for others to determine who benefits from half truths when more than one individual or research…

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