protein-folding

How did the innate immune system evolve?

Sexually Antagonistic Male Signals Manipulate Germline and Soma of C. elegans Hermaphrodites Abstract excerpt: Why would a system exist that reduces the vigor of potential mates prior to mating? Addressing this question could provide insights into mechanisms and evolution of sexual conflict and reveal sensory inputs that regulate aging. Highlights excerpt: An unknown signal accelerates larval development, specifically the onset of puberty Reported as: Male chemistry primes females for reproduction—but at a cost “There is a fine balance between reproduction and…

Read More

The Mind’s Eyes (revisited)

Author’s copy: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences (2007) Abstract: The across-species genetic conservation of intercellular and extracellular chemical communication enables unicellular and multicellular organisms to functionally distinguish between self and non-self.  Non-self olfactory/pheromonal input from the social environment elicits a vertebrate neuroendocrine response.  The organization and activation of this neuroendocrine response modulates the concurrent maturation of the mammalian neuroendocrine system, the reproductive system, and the central nervous system during the development of sexual preferences that…

Read More

Energy dependent RNA-mediated immunity (3)

Viral ‘fossils’ in our DNA may help us fight infection Excerpt: The work suggests that these viral fossils probably played a key role in the evolution of our species… My comment: The work shows that Greg Bear accurately portrayed virus-driven energy theft when he linked it to the creation of new species. In 1999 and 2003, he linked what is now known about the anti-entropic effects of sunlight and hydrogen-energy transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the creation…

Read More

Bacteria see the light and they adapt (2)

Differential Odour Coding of Isotopomers in the Honeybee Brain Conclusion: In summary, we provided the first neurophysiological evidence of differential neural coding of isotopomers. Also, in light of the recent literature on ODEs, and considering that odour transduction in insects occurs in ≈2 ms24, it seems unlikely that perireceptor events could be responsible for the reported isotope sensitivity. Finally, we performed direct measurements of the vibrational spectra of each odorant, and reported that spectral differences among isotopomers well reflect differences in…

Read More

Bacteria see the light and they adapt

Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction Excerpt: From the observed dimensions of the spot of 488 nm light focused by Synechocystis cells (Figure 3c) we can estimate that Synechocystis “vision” has an angular resolution (FWHM) of about 21°, essentially limited by light wavelength and the area of the plasma membrane, which is tiny in comparison to an animal retina. However, this resolution is sufficient to incorporate quite complex spatial information into a 360° image of the cell’s surroundings, and…

Read More

The Light and Darkness of “Evolution 2.0”

The light of evolution in the oft-cited work by Dobzhansky (1973) is the energy from sunlight. The sun’s biological energy links its anti-entropic virucidal epigenetic effects to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera. Excerpt from Dobzhansky (1973)  …the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla. ( p.…

Read More

RNA-mediated theory killers (2)

RNA-mediated theory killers… This is a continuation that will become a series that links the million dollar paradox to the $100,000 prize offered for finding the origin of information at Evolution 2.0, which obviously will be a continuation of Schrodinger’s claims and Dobzhansky’s claims along with the claims of others I have repeatedly mentioned here. Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity Reported as: Lifelong learning is made possible by recycling of histones Excerpt: “Histones and their…

Read More

Positive feedback loops and epigenetic traps

Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements Conclusion: …bidirectional transcription of active enhancers and promoters evolved, in part, to facilitate trapping of TFs at specific regulatory elements. The model also suggests that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that may contribute to the stability of gene expression programs in cells. The contribution of this TF trapping mechanism to cellular regulation has yet to be established but will be important to elucidate in future studies because much…

Read More

Theorists can’t understand biology

See also: Neuroplasticity Thanks to Teresa Binstock for calling my attention to this:   Thanks to Anna Di Cosmo for calling the attention of others to this: My comment: Attempts to explain the “binding problem” of integration in the context of ecoimmunology and disease ecology compared to emergence and evolution are examples of how much pseudoscientific nonsense has been accepted and touted in the context of the neo-Darwinian “Modern Synthesis.” For comparison, serious scientists have detailed a model of top-down…

Read More

Sensationalizing no new mechanism

Scientists discover new mechanism that protects brain stem cells against aging-induced damage Excerpt: Sebastian Jessberger says: This is an exciting new mechanism involved in stem cell division and aging. But as of now we are only just beginning to understand the molecular constituents and the true meaning of the barrier for stem cell division in the brain. One key question to be answered is whether the barrier is established in all somatic stem cells of the body. My comment: There…

Read More