protein-folding

Cell type differentiation: atoms to ecosystems

Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees Abstract conclusion: A major result of increased plasticity is that the development of neural circuits that underlie behavior is shaped by the environmental, social, and cultural context more intensively in humans than in other primate species, thus providing an anatomical basis for behavioral and cognitive evolution. Reported as: Nature and nurture: Human brains evolved to be more responsive to environmental influences Excerpt: …the morphology of the human cerebral…

Read More

Receptor methylation controls behavior

The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling Excerpt 1) The addition of a methyl group to an arginine residue can remove a hydrogen bond donor and decrease the electrostatic surface potential at the residue, resulting in a change in size and hydrophobicity that can affect its interaction with binding partners (21). Excerpt 2) Together, these results led us to propose that arginine methylation promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling and that this mechanism of receptor regulation is conserved…

Read More

The virome, microbiome, replisome and supercoiled DNA

First Complete Pictures of Cells’ DNA-Copying Machinery Excerpt: This architecture could also potentially play an important role in developmental biology by providing a pathway for treating the two daughter strands differently. Many modifications to DNA, including how it is packaged with other proteins, control which of the many genes in the sequence are eventually expressed in cells. An asymmetric replisome may result in asymmetric treatment of the two daughter strands during cell division—an essential step for making different tissues within…

Read More

Controled Stem Cell Expansion

Serine … is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. [It]… is classified as a polar amino acid. My comment: Serine synthesis in the body is linked to glycine, which also may be naturally produced when UV light illuminates simple ices (e.g., combinations of water, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). That suggested to some people that glycine and other amino acids may be easily produced in cold regions of space, and the suggestion, like virtually all suggestions, seems to be believable…

Read More

700 million years of evolution?

Analysis of 5′ gene regions reveals extraordinary conservation of novel non-coding sequences in a wide range of animals Conclusion: It is our hope that each and every one of these regions will make interesting candidates for experimental analysis, helping to increase our understanding of regulation of gene expression, and particularly our understanding of regulatory elements in RNA. My comment: In other words, they hope what has already been detailed in the context of how nutrient-dependent microRNAs link the epigenetic landscape…

Read More

RNA-mediated retrotransposon-mediated biodiversity

Retrotransposons (also called transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. See also: A Single Amino Acid Change in the Yeast Retrotransposon Ty5 Abolishes Targeting to Silent Chromatin Excerpt: Target site biases observed among retroviruses and retrotransposons are thought to be the consequence of interactions between the retroelement integration complex and chromosome-localized proteins. My comment: Clearly, the way to make scientific progress is…

Read More

Mystery machine vs model

See: Mystery machine vs medical intelligence Is nutrition the future of brain health? Excerpt: Steindler’s focus on the link between nutrition and neurodegenerative diseases is unique in the field. My comment: If he has limited his claims to those associated only with neurodegenerative diseases, his focus is too narrow. Unfortunately, narrow focus is common among specialists. Their focus makes them specialists, and without them generalists could not connect the specialties to healthy longevity and/or pathology. Not just brain health or…

Read More

Supercoiled DNA constrains virus-driven genomic entropy

1) Genes linked with malaria’s virulence shared by apes, humans and 2) Supercoiled DNA is far more dynamic than the ‘Watson-Crick’ double helix were reported today. One report (1) links viruses to the evolution of biodiversity in chimpanzees and humans compared to gorillas. The other report (2) links nutrient energy-dependent base pair changes to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and DNA repair. Both reports are linked to open access publications: See 1)  Ape parasite origins of human malaria virulence genes Excerpt:…

Read More

Let there be anti-entropic light (2)

Predicted Inactivation of Viruses of Relevance to Biodefense by Solar Radiation (2005)Excerpt: Sunlight or, more specifically, solar UV radiation (UV) acts as the principal natural virucide in the environment. UV radiation kills viruses by chemically modifying their genetic material, DNA and RNA. See also: Let there be anti-entropic light (1) Excerpt: Nutrient-stress and social stress contribute to the accumulation of viral miRNAs that would typically be prevented by nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled feeback loops that link food odors and social odors to…

Read More

Foundamentals of theory

There are foundations of epigenetics and fundamentals of molecular mechanisms. They have been detailed in this atoms to ecosystems model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems. I have never seen anyone mention the “foundamentals” of epigenetics. It appears the word has been invented. Similarly, the word “mutation” was invented in 1904 by de Vries. Inventing words and defining them to fit ridiculous theories about neo-Darwinian evolution is required to continue convincing theorists that…

Read More