protein-folding

Questions about life’s diversity

Questions about life can be answered in the context of what sustains it. 1) Answers must explain the diversity of life. 2) The diversity of life may help to explain the purpose of life. 3) Explaining the purpose of life may assist anyone who does not think they will live forever. 4) Answers to questions about life that explain life’s diversity must include what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms that link differences in morphological and behavioral phenotypes in…

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Virus-driven origin of life

On the Origins of Life A new experimental system demonstrates that precursors of ribonucleotides, amino acids, and lipids may have simultaneously arisen from the same prebiotic chemistry. By Jef Akst | March 17, 2015 “This is a very important paper,” Jack Szostak, a molecular biologist and origin-of-life researcher… See also: Luis P. Villarreal: We Need a Nonlinear Language for Life Nobelist Jack Szostak has told me this about autocatalytic sets: the people who came up with the original idea, like…

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Luis P. Villarreal tells it like it is

Luis P. Villarreal has led the way towards discovery of the “origins of life.” He has helped to elucidate what is currently known about how the epigenetic landscape becomes the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to humans. Kudos to Suzan Mazur for admitting that she missed learning about his works. Perhaps a few neo-Darwinian evolutionary theorists will also admit they have missed something very important about the role of viruses in cell type…

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Walk towards the light

Cockroaches Accumulate Light to See in the Dark Excerpt: “Taking into account the size of the experiment’s stripes, the optical properties of the roaches’ eyes and the amount of photons available, the team concluded that the roach nervous system pools information from its thousands of photoreceptors over time—in effect, accumulating electrical neural signals and using the summation of those signals to see.” My comment: If there were no link from light-induced amino acid substitutions to nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation in…

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Epigenetics Skeptism

Thanks to Joost G. Wouters for the alert to this nonsense: 1) Michael White in Pacific Standard magazine flatly states that “Epigenetics Is Not Revolutionizing Biology.” 2) Adrian Bird points out in the journal Cell that many of the field’s assumptions and promises remain unproven and are perhaps excessive. 1) White’s article sketches the field’s promise and hype, from questionable ‪epigenetic‬ diets and wild claims about controlling genes with your thoughts. He follows with a summary of epigenetics, then runs…

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Rejecting what is known about viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

Of Cells and Limits Leonard Hayflick has been unafraid to speak his mind, whether it is to upend a well-entrenched dogma or to challenge the federal government. At 86, he’s nowhere near retirement. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 1, 2015 Excerpt: The rejection letter came from Francis Peyton Rous who received the Nobel Prize a few years later for his discovery of chicken tumor viruses. My comment: My 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics detailed how differences in the microRNA/messenger…

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RNA-mediated “repurposing” is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled

 Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system Excerpt: The fast-spreading strain AR2F had acquired an additional point mutation in the σ54-dependent EBP gene ntrC, which alters an amino acid (R442C) within the DNA binding domain (Table 1 and table S2). Reported as: Evolutionary Rewiring Strong selective pressure can lead to rapid and reproducible evolution in bacteria. By Ruth Williams | February 26, 2015 Excerpt: NtrC shares 30 percent amino acid identity with FleQ, suggesting the…

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Let there be anti-entropic light (1)

Summary: Light-induced amino acid substitutions link cell type differentiation in plants to nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in animals via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding. Protein folding is perturbed by mutations that limit the ability of organisms to adapt to ecological variation. Viruses contribute to mutations. The sun’s biological energy appears to supply the anti-entropic force that links entropic elasticity to the development of successful morphological and behavioral phenotypes that are exemplified in extant versus extinct biodiversity. The importance of…

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Atheism: Arrogant, useless, and divisive ignorance

Scientific Seeker Stuart Kauffman on Free Will, God, ESP and Other Mysteries By John Horgan | February 4, 2015 Excerpt: Horgan: What do you make of the antipathy toward religion expressed by Richard Dawkins and other “New Atheists?” Kauffman: … moral behavior requires no belief in God. Morality probably evolved in Paleolithic to some extent. But to dismiss those who do believe in God, in any sense, is arrogant and useless and divisive. Excerpt: We need accelerating expansion of universe for…

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Military combat training to fight disease (2)

See: Military combat training to fight disease In the quantum world, the future affects the past Excerpt 1) “It’s not clear why in the real world, the world made up of many particles, time only goes forward and entropy always increases,” Murch said. My comment: Serious scientists are attempting to determine why entropy does not always increase. They realize that feedback loops link cause and effect from the quantum world to the real world of light-induced amino acid substitutions that…

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