reproduction

Non-random pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation

Experience-Dependent Plasticity Drives Individual Differences in Pheromone-Sensing Neurons Aug 17, 2016   •Individual differences in cell types are not random •Sex differences in pheromone-sensing neurons are controlled by experience •Changes in specific cell types are governed via “use it and lose it” plasticity •Targeting plasticity to specific cell types changes animal behavior This was reported as: Long-term exposure to female scents changes courtship behavior in male mice The senior author co-authored Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates neural coding…

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Energy-dependent natural fluorescence and bioluminescence

Researchers discover that DNA naturally fluoresces Everybody has overlooked this effect because nobody asked the right question,” said Backman…. “It sounds cliché, but you get the answer to the question you ask. When we actually asked the right question, we got a very different answer than expected. Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system Researchers did not ask any questions about how the energy-dependent weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum occurred in an organism that…

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GC-rich neo-Darwinian train wreck

Targeted Epigenetic Remodeling of Endogenous Loci by CRISPR/Cas9-Based Transcriptional Activators Directly Converts Fibroblasts to Neuronal Cells Excerpt: In this study, we demonstrate direct cellular reprogramming to induced neuronal cells through targeted activation of endogenous genes. Excerpt: Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that reprogramming efficiency can be limited by divergence to a competing cell identity (Treutlein et al., 2016). The molecular mechanisms and practical consequences of these limitations are largely unknown. My comment: They demonstrate what naturally must occur to link…

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Biophysically constrained cell type differentiation

Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk Excerpt: A paradigmatic example is that of the aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase1, which uses kinetic proofreading2 to load appropriate amino acids onto matching tRNAs. This and other examples—including DNA replication, ligand sensing3, protein–protein interactions4,5,6,7,8,9, recognition events in the immune system10,11 and molecular self-assembly12—indicate that biology places a large premium on the reduction of unintended ‘crosstalk’, a generic term that encompasses all potentially disruptive processes due to reactions between non-cognate substrates. Reported as:…

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From angstroms to ecosystems

How a happy moment for neuroscience is a sad moment for science Systems neuroscience is celebrating a landmark, but one that shows the way we do science is broken. Excerpt: These data are the first complete set of neural activity recordings released before publication. No papers preceded it; not even a report. Nothing. Just: here you go guys, the fruits of the joint labour of around 100 people over 4 years.” My comment: They released the information on June 13,…

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Food supplement or licensed immunostimulant?

Glucan from Food Supplement to a Licensed Drug   Excerpt: “…β-glucan possesses a significant immunostimulating activity in a wide variety of species, including earthworms, shrimp, fish, chicken, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs, cattle, and, last but not least, humans. Based on these results, it has been concluded that β-glucan represents a type of immunostimulanting molecule that is actively spanning full evolutionary spectrum. Some experiments also show that β-glucan can help even in the protection of plants. β-Glucan is therefore…

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Q and A: Energy-dependent cell type differentiation

Richard Lenski and other theorists will not discuss the amount of pseudoscientific nonsense they have included in their ridiculous claims. Rarely does anyone else attempt to unravel their claims in the context of the reports I will cite below, or in other reports that refute ridiculous neo-Darwinian theories. Recently, however, Greg Thurston made an honorable effort to learn about energy-dependent biophysically constrained cause and effect via a series of questions that could be answered with minimal jargon. Q and A…

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Biophotonics, glycobiology, quantized biodiversity (2)

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) In our section on Molecular epigenetics, we wrote: Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility…

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Modelling life scientifically: RNA-mediated events

Experiment: “An attempt to arrive at an accurate result.” — James V. Kohl (3/27/16) EFBC fellowship class response to Dr. Tom Jordan who asked me to define “experiment” For comparison, see: Experiment: An experiment is a procedure carried out to verify, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the…

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Energy-dependent RNA methylation (6)

After I published Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, Lynnette Ferguson and Justin O’Sullivan invited me to submit this review of nutritional epigenetics for inclusion in a special issue of the journal “Nutrients.” Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (April 10, 2014) Abstract: This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes…

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