substitutions

RNA-directed gene choice

March 2015: ChemoSense; see Timothy S. McClintock: “Odorant Receptor Gene Choice” He concludes: “The epigenetic control of OR gene expression through repression and de-repression is a remarkable story, and as a fundamental mechanism intimately associated with the random differentiation of a neural progenitor cell into multiple neuronal subtypes, one wonders whether it might be a framework for understanding other instances of differentiation of neural subtypes (Lyons and Lomvardas, 2014).” My comment: The epigenetic control of OR gene expression is RNA-directed…

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Two types of microRNA are not double agents

Study details microRNA’s role as a double agent during Hep C infection By coopting miRNA-122, the virus appears to alter gene expression in the liver Excerpt: “What if chronic low levels of miRNA-122 prompt changes that, over years, contribute to liver damage and cancer? This could be a molecular link between the viral infection and the pathologies associated with hepatitis C,” Luna says. “More work on miRNA-122 targets in hepatitis C-infected patients may clarify why some go on to develop…

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Epigenetics Skeptism

Thanks to Joost G. Wouters for the alert to this nonsense: 1) Michael White in Pacific Standard magazine flatly states that “Epigenetics Is Not Revolutionizing Biology.” 2) Adrian Bird points out in the journal Cell that many of the field’s assumptions and promises remain unproven and are perhaps excessive. 1) White’s article sketches the field’s promise and hype, from questionable ‪epigenetic‬ diets and wild claims about controlling genes with your thoughts. He follows with a summary of epigenetics, then runs…

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Implicating microRNAs in cancer

Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in a Mouse Model of Tumor Growth and Metastasis Reported as: In vivo CRISPR-Cas9 screen sheds light on cancer metastasis and tumor evolution Excerpt: “Unexpectedly, the screen also implicated several microRNAs — small RNA segments that are functional in the cell. More experimental work remains to fully explore the genes and microRNAs uncovered in the screen.” It is the perturbed balance of viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs that obviously makes the difference between RNA-directed DNA methylation and…

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Rejecting what is known about viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs

Of Cells and Limits Leonard Hayflick has been unafraid to speak his mind, whether it is to upend a well-entrenched dogma or to challenge the federal government. At 86, he’s nowhere near retirement. By Anna Azvolinsky | March 1, 2015 Excerpt: The rejection letter came from Francis Peyton Rous who received the Nobel Prize a few years later for his discovery of chicken tumor viruses. My comment: My 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics detailed how differences in the microRNA/messenger…

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Reverse phosphorylation

See for review: Let there be anti-entropic light (1)   Squid are hyper-editors when it comes to RNA This is a great summary of what is currently known about anti-entropic light and nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation. Excerpt: “During RNA editing, specific enzymes alter nucleotides in mRNA transcripts so that the resulting protein differs in amino acid sequence from what was encoded by the original DNA. Such RNA editing is a means to generate greater protein diversity…” The RNA-editing…

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RNA-mediated “repurposing” is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled

 Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system Excerpt: The fast-spreading strain AR2F had acquired an additional point mutation in the σ54-dependent EBP gene ntrC, which alters an amino acid (R442C) within the DNA binding domain (Table 1 and table S2). Reported as: Evolutionary Rewiring Strong selective pressure can lead to rapid and reproducible evolution in bacteria. By Ruth Williams | February 26, 2015 Excerpt: NtrC shares 30 percent amino acid identity with FleQ, suggesting the…

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Let there be anti-entropic light (1)

Summary: Light-induced amino acid substitutions link cell type differentiation in plants to nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in animals via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding. Protein folding is perturbed by mutations that limit the ability of organisms to adapt to ecological variation. Viruses contribute to mutations. The sun’s biological energy appears to supply the anti-entropic force that links entropic elasticity to the development of successful morphological and behavioral phenotypes that are exemplified in extant versus extinct biodiversity. The importance of…

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Atheism: Arrogant, useless, and divisive ignorance

Scientific Seeker Stuart Kauffman on Free Will, God, ESP and Other Mysteries By John Horgan | February 4, 2015 Excerpt: Horgan: What do you make of the antipathy toward religion expressed by Richard Dawkins and other “New Atheists?” Kauffman: … moral behavior requires no belief in God. Morality probably evolved in Paleolithic to some extent. But to dismiss those who do believe in God, in any sense, is arrogant and useless and divisive. Excerpt: We need accelerating expansion of universe for…

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Nutritional epigenetics, exercise, and immune system integrity

Anti-inflammatory mechanism of dieting and fasting revealed Summary: Researchers have found that a compound produced by the body when dieting or fasting can block a part of the immune system involved in several inflammatory disorders such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. My comment: For the obvious link from nutrition and exercise to reproduction and RNA-mediated transgenerational epigenetic effects on the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all species that must “move” to find food or to find mates…

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