teleological elements

Biophysically constrained cell type differentiation

Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk Excerpt: A paradigmatic example is that of the aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase1, which uses kinetic proofreading2 to load appropriate amino acids onto matching tRNAs. This and other examples—including DNA replication, ligand sensing3, protein–protein interactions4,5,6,7,8,9, recognition events in the immune system10,11 and molecular self-assembly12—indicate that biology places a Biophysically constrained cell type differentiation