thermoregulation

Olfaction & the octopus and human genomes (2)

Darwinian evolution in the light of genomics Eugene Koonin excerpt: The distribution of evolutionary rates across sets of orthologous genes, the distribution of the sizes of paralogous gene families, the negative correlation between the expression level and the sequence evolution rate of a gene, and other relationships between key evolutionary and phenomic variables seem to be genuine universals of evolution. The simplicity of these universal regularities suggests that they are shaped by equally simple, fundamental evolutionary processes, rather than by…

Read More

RNA-mediated terms of virus-induced en-deer-ment

  KarmaWarrior Level – Oh Deer Posted by Stanton Warriors on Friday, August 1, 2014 My comment: This reminds me of a reported incident from: Gibbons, D.L. (1989) Unusual case: Sex in the woods. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 23,10(Oct):63.“Cindy, who was menstruating… had gone alone to a portable commode hidden in a thicket to change her tampon, unaware that a young stag was nearby… Smelling her menstrual secretions, the deer became sexually aroused. He bounded through the trees and…

Read More

Virus-driven death by evolutionary theory

Distinct lineages of Ebola virus in Guinea during the 2014 West African epidemic Excerpt: The data presented here indicates EBOV is able to generate and fix nucleotide and amino acid variation within co-circulating viral lineages on the time-scale of individual outbreaks, including the presence of country-specific lineages, and which may ultimately produce variants with important fitness differences. Reported as: Three Ebola virus variants identified in Guinea. Excerpt 1) The Ebola epidemic has been ongoing in West Africa for over a…

Read More

microRNAs, glycosylation, and genomes

Summary: Given what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera, it may be impossible for theorists to link mutations to evolution via glycosylation. miRNA proxy approach reveals hidden functions of glycosylation Abstract excerpt: Glycosylation, the most abundant posttranslational modification, holds an unprecedented capacity for altering biological function. Journal article excerpt: …glycans play a role in every major disease (1), and there are clinical examples of drugs targeting glycosylation enzymes… suggesting that glycosylation enzymes may provide fallow…

Read More

From gut bacteria to breast milk and back

Breast milk may alter behaviour of babies Milk contains sugars designed to feed gut bacteria that affect brain Excerpt:  Breast milk contains a lot of sugars that infants can’t digest, but that feed bacteria that live in human intestines. Those bacteria don’t just help digest food, said Hinde. “They can release chemical signals that travel to the infant’s brain and shape neurodevelopment.” Studies in mice and rats show that signals released by bacteria in the gut can affect how sociable and…

Read More

Epigenetics vs the fossil record

Evolution of stem cells traced in study of fossilized rodent teeth Excerpt: “the mechanism that allowed the shift from longer teeth to continuously growing ones… probably linked to a regulatory element of DNA that activates the transcription of a gene or genes.” My comment: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man via conserved molecular mechanisms of the biophysically constrained…

Read More

Misunderstanding cancer

Tumor-Only Genetic Sequencing May Misguide Cancer Treatment in Nearly Half of All Patients, Study Shows Excerpt 1) “…they counted 382 possible tumor-related changes. But after comparing a patient’s full germline genome to his or her tumor genomes, they determined that, on average, 249 of these changes were part of the patient’s normal, inherited genetic variation and were not tumor-specific.” Excerpt 2) “In addition to selecting personalized therapies for patients with cancer, sequencing the normal tissue genome can also increase the…

Read More

Too many targets for theories

Random mutations are the substrates upon which directional natural selection acts.” —  Jay R. Feierman. Others have claimed that random mutations and natural selection somehow lead to the evolution of morphological phenotypes and behavioral phenotypes. They have not placed their claims into the context of what is known about ecological variation and ecological adaptations manifested as RNA-mediated sex differences in cell types of the human brain and all other cell type differences in all genera? Ecological variation is the raw…

Read More

Methylation maintains cell type differences (2)

Follow up to:  Methylation maintains cell type differences Brain’s ‘gender’ may be quite flexible: Mechanism that plays key role in sexual differentiation of brain described Excerpt: “Prof. McCarthy is now doing additional research on the links between the immune system and brain sex differences.” See also: An immune hypothesis of sexual orientation Excerpt: “…this ICS-hypothesis is consistent with the fact that many mfTSs can have children and does not preclude effects of odors and pheromones, but elucidates why those substances…

Read More

Creating nothing but a theory

De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2+-transporting four-helix bundle Excerpt 1) The de novo design of proteins is an important endeavor that critically tests our understanding of the principles underlying protein folding and function, while also laying the foundation for the design of proteins and molecular assemblies with desired properties. Much progress has been recently demonstrated… but no designed membrane protein has been experimentally shown to adopt the desired fold at atomic resolution. Excerpt 2) Nevertheless, these findings… provide support…

Read More