Translation

Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy (2)

2/15/17 Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (video) The 6.46 minute-long technical presentation (above) from the Precision Medicine Virtual Conference is difficult to understand.Thus, 10 months later, Nik Willmore asked: 12/24/17 What are your insights into CRISPR and mTOR, for a young audience? I’m not mocking you…yet, Humpty Dumpty. What is the basis of your Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy (2)

Elsevier fails to support the concept of autophagy

Summary: Who lets biologically uninformed theorists make presumptions about evolution after all serious scientists have linked light-harvesting from energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems in all living genera via natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality. Who lets them pretend not to know that the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links autophagy to the transgenerational epigenetic Elsevier fails to support the concept of autophagy

From Autophagy.pro (transitions)

Summary: Who lets biologically uninformed theorists make presumptions about evolution after all serious scientists have linked light-harvesting from energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems in all living genera via natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality. Who lets them pretend not to know that the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links autophagy to the transgenerational epigenetic From Autophagy.pro (transitions)

Energy-dependent epigenetic translation to mRNA stability

Negative selection in humans and fruit flies involves synergistic epistasis Negative selection against deleterious alleles produced by mutation influences within-population variation as the most pervasive form of natural selection. Naturally occurring positive selection for energy-dependent codon optimality replaced every aspect of neo-Darwinian theories that linked natural selection from mutations to evolution of increasing organismal complexity. Energy-dependent epigenetic translation to mRNA stability

UV light and non-coding RNA

UV Irradiation Induces a Non-coding RNA that Functionally Opposes the Protein Encoded by the Same Gene …these events underlie a switch to expression of short mRNA isoforms and preferential use of alternative last exons in a number of genes, including ASCC3. Intriguingly, the switch between ASCC3 isoforms occurs on more than one level, in that the UV light and non-coding RNA

RNA methylation (revisited)

N 6-Methyladenosine (m6A) Methylation in mRNA with A Dynamic and Reversible Epigenetic Modification Excerpt: …the reversible and dynamic m6A RNA methylation, the most prevalent internal modification in mRNA, plays broad and key roles in diverse biological processes. Through the functional interactions with m6A methyltransferases, demethylases, and m6A-binding proteins, this epigenetic modification affects various aspects of RNA methylation (revisited)

Origin and evolution of the genetic code

Origin and evolution of the genetic code: the universal enigma Excerpt: …it appears essentially certain that the evolution of the code involved some combination of frozen accident with selection for error minimization. My comment: This claim from 2009 failed to address anything currently known to serious scientists about the Schrodinger’s claim from 1944, in What Origin and evolution of the genetic code

Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in DNA Base Pairs (4)

Historical perspective: Behold James Vaughn Kohl. Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in DNA Base Pairs (4)

Correctly modeling ecological adaptation

Statistics requantitates the central dogma Excerpt: “Mammalian proteins are expressed at ∼103 to 108 molecules per cell (1). Differences between cell types, between normal and disease states, and between individuals are largely defined by changes in the abundance of proteins, which are in turn determined by rates of transcription, messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, translation, and Correctly modeling ecological adaptation