variation

How did the innate immune system evolve?

Sexually Antagonistic Male Signals Manipulate Germline and Soma of C. elegans Hermaphrodites Abstract excerpt: Why would a system exist that reduces the vigor of potential mates prior to mating? Addressing this question could provide insights into mechanisms and evolution of sexual conflict and reveal sensory inputs that regulate aging. Highlights excerpt: An unknown signal accelerates larval development, specifically the onset of puberty Reported as: Male chemistry primes females for reproduction—but at a cost “There is a fine balance between reproduction and…

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Organic Compounds and the Miracle of Smell and Taste

Neo-Darwian evolutionary theorists and human ethologists seem to ignore the fact that reproductive isolation is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. …reproductive isolation may sometimes follow and at other times precede the adaptive divergence of gene pools of populations. — Dobzhansky (1972) Those who cite Dobzhansky’s (1973)  claim that Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution, have failed to explain why …the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids…

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Jumping back: Science or Pseudoscience? (2)

See: Jumping back: Science or Pseudoscience? European Science’s Great Leap Backward inferred that evolutionary theory is evidence-based science: Excerpt: “… the U.S. can claim no superiority in our approach to evidence-based science, as demonstrated by the fact that nearly half of the country rejects the “theory” of evolution…” This article attests to the need to substitute evidence-based science: Leading Activist Apologizes For Starting Anti-GMO Movement Excerpt: “But what about mixing genes between unrelated species? The fish and the tomato? Turns…

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Extensive molecular evidence vs ridiculous theories

Mosquito Genomes Galore Whole-genome sequences of 16 different mosquito species reveal rapid evolution and could inform malaria research. By Ruth Williams | November 27, 2014 Excerpt: “…mosquitoes are rapidly evolving, exhibiting high degrees of gene gains, losses, shuffling, and even transmission between closely related species.” It is the reports on rapid evolution of insects that continues to limit the usefulness of any theories about mutations and or natural selection of anything except food. My comments (below) to The Scientist site…

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We need pattern recognition, not a prologue

Prolegomenon “a preliminary discussion…; a prologue.” “… we need a mapping from genotype to phenotype, from phenotype to what is selected, and from what is selected to the new genotype (Lewontin, 1961). — cited in Prolegomenon to patterns in evolution Excerpt:  “…we cannot derive what selection, acting at the level of the whole organism in its world, will “select” among the possible but unprestatable…” My comment: Organisms naturally select the nutrients that enable thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation,…

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Pharmacogenomics

“The gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ-system pathway is a neuroscientifically established link between sensory input and behavior. Marts and Resnick (2007) stress the importance of this pathway in the context of a systems biology approach to pharmacogenomics.” (Kohl, 2012) “Naftolin (1981) stressed its importance to the understanding of sex differences. This pathway is sensitive to conditioning. Sensory input from an organism’s environment activates and reactivates the pathway and causes changes in hormone secretion that condition hormone-driven behavior.” (Kohl, 2012) See…

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No understanding of biodiversity

No single explanation for biodiversity in Madagascar Excerpt: “The study is part of a larger body of research aimed at identifying the climate, geology and other features of the environment that help bring new species of plants and animals into being in an area, and then sustain once they’re there.” My comment: Like many studies, this one posits that new species automagically arise and are somehow sustained in ecological niches. Excerpt: “What governs the distribution of, say, a particular group of…

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Unassailable evidence vs assumptions

Putting the theory before the data: Is “massive modularity” a necessary foundation of evolutionary psychology? Excerpt 1) “Anyone who attends HBES, EHBEA, ISHE or any of the other conferences dedicated to the approach will discover that new fields of study are constantly being approached through the lens of evolutionary theory.” Excerpt 2) “There is little to be gained by prematurely formalising the foundations of the field – putting the theory before the data – particularly if those foundations later turn…

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Genomic surveillance ends our world of RNA-mediated ecological adaptations

Why is this woman smiling? 1) Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data Senior author: Sabeti with co-author Rinn Excerpt: “As natural selection can only act on mutations that drive phenotypic variation…”. 2) Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak  Senior author: Sabeti. Excerpt: “Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response.” 3) RNA and…

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Epigenetically-effected metabolic shifts and ecological adaptations

Epigenetics of Trained Innate Immunity: Documenting the epigenetic landscape of human innate immune cells reveals pathways essential for training macrophages. By Ruth Williams | September 25, 2014 [open access] Excerpt: “…they then analyzed genome-wide distributions of four epigenetic indicators of gene activity: DNAse hypersensitivity and three different histone modifications—trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. They also analyzed genome-wide transcription and transcription factor binding. Together…

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