Excerpt with my (emphasis):
Ultimately what defines a parasite is that they require certain key nutrients from their host,” he says. “So they have had to evolve ways to get around their own barriers, to gain access to these nutrients.
The claim that parasites evolve the ability to gain access to nutrients continues to kill millions of people, which is why serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease
The link between the olfactory and the innate immune systems of all invertebrates and vertebrates exemplifies how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptation without the pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution. See for example: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
It is now believed, however, that odor perception is more akin to the immune system workings where multitudes of receptors are each uniquely responsive to chemical structures (Bartoshuk and Beauchamp, 1994; Buck and Axel, 1991). Moreover, these receptor proteins are chemically and structurally similar to those that bind neurotransmitters and hormones (Buck and Axel, 1991).
This approach allowed the scientists to create a new framework that makes it unnecessary to explicitly model intracellular communication, cell differentiation, activation of cofactors, coordination of different cell types, the interaction with the innate immune system, and the full complexity of the recognition process.
Self-organization of complexity is the rallying cry of theorists who obviously would rather ignore the systems complexity of olfactory and immune system recognition than address it in the context of what has been learned about cell type differentiation since the Nobel Prize-winning work by Buck and Axel, which was published 1991. We cited it in our 1996 review and it is cited in How a well-adapted immune system is organized.
… the mammalian olfactory system contains some ∼ 1,000 distinct receptors that each bind widely to odorants and collectively cover olfactory space (31). In these cases, the limited repertoire of component types provides a key constraint on information processing. Faced with such constraints, living systems must commit resources wisely, adapting to the structure of the environment and balancing breadth of coverage against depth of resolution, in light of priorities, costs, and constraints (32). We have shown that these elements also shape the optimal form of the immune repertoire.
The optimal form of the immune repertoire is not self-organized. Information about the full complexity of olfactory/immune system recognition is required to understand how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptation via cell type differentiation in all genera.
Parasites and hosts biophysically constrain virus-driven entropic elasticity via nutrient-dependent microRNAs. The nutrient-dependent microRNAs typically prevent DNA damage and/or repair the DNA damage caused by viral microRNAs.
The nutrient-dependent microRNAs, RNA-directed DNA methylation, and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions silence gene expression. The silencing of gene expression links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrients to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. The RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that link receptors in the olfactory and the immune systems are fixed in the organized genomes of all genera via the physiology of reproduction.
See also: Search Results for ‘Malaria’