This remodeling of LH circuitry could contribute to the chronic deficit in reward function that has been hypothesized to drive the transition to drug addiction.
Lena D. van der Stap discussed her role in the publication of this article, which failed to make any assumptions about mutations and/or evolution.
James Kohl Did you co-author Gene expression evidence for remodeling of lateral hypothalamic circuitry in cocaine addiction McEwen told me to start with gene activation in the hypothalamus, which is what Robert L. Moss showed in a series of published works in the 1990’s on pheromones.
Lena D. van der Stap Yes, I did the mRNA expression analysis.
James Kohl I would not have guessed you were old enough to know so much. You are in a great position to move forward with the obvious link that’s been missing: quantized energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis and RNA interference as the therapy George Church patented despite knowing that it naturally occurs.
Lena D. van der Stap I was getting into the epigenetic changes in overall DNA methylation patterns during alcohol dependence. It doesn’t have to replace the old paradigm. It’s additive. Adding the nutrient dependence component and voila!
James Kohl The use of ethanol production to control the viruses in bacteria that attack yeasts is the link from the pheromone-constrained physiology of reproduction in yeasts to humans, which protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. If you would like to co-author a book about this, I can supply more than 10,000 citations from my Endnote bibliographic data base. But first, see the link to sexual orientation from our section on molecular epigenetics in this 1996 review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
“Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).”
The use of ethanol production to control the viruses in bacteria that attack yeasts is the link from the pheromone-constrained physiology of reproduction in yeasts to humans, which protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. If you would like to co-author a book about this, I can supply more than 10,000 citations from my Endnote bibliographic data base. But first, see the link to sexual orientation from our section on molecular epigenetics in this 1996 review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
I don’t think we missed anything because a recent preprint touts alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs (microRNAs) as if no one else from Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory ever heard of them.
… endogenous variation in snRNA [small nuclear RNAs] levels confers regulatory capacity on these RNAs.
They link microRNA biogenesis (aka the creation of pre-mRNAs) from ligh-activated endogenous substrates to viral latency and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and feedback loops but use the term small nuclear RNAs. Researchers who publish preprints on the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory preprint server are becoming notorious for their attempts to obfuscate what is known about energy-dependent top-down causation. Like the pseudoscientists who ignore the facts about the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and publish on this physics preprint server arXiv.org, we will continue to see their examples of human idiocy.
The difference between physics and biology is that biologists are less likely than physicists to believe that biomolecules automagically create themselves sans the quantized energy that is required to sustain all life on Earth via differential gene expression in the context of alternative splicings of microRNAs/pre-mRNAs.
This contradicted the common thinking that once an mRNA is transcribed from a gene the 5′ and 3′ UTRs and the coding regions act as a unit until protein is produced and the mRNA is degraded.
The skewed expression links the nutrient energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which is altered by viruses that steal energy, to brain development and dopamine synthesis/degradation associated with different alleles. The differences have been linked to behavior via the Val158Met amino acid substitution and also to brain cancer.
The skewed mRNA expression also was placed into the context of how supercoiled DNA protects cell type differentiation by preventing the theft of nutrient-dependent energy that links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs to healthy longevity or to pathology during life history transitions. For example, the Val158Met allele links energy-dependent changes during adolescence to adulthood that link morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera to all biodiversity in all living genera.
Fixation of one quantized energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution links changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity. The theft of quantized energy by viruses links the degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology, including the brain pathology of school shooters.
See also: COMT Val158Met
Ask why pseudoscientists and other theorists still fail to link the creation of quantized energy to all morphological and behavioral diversity on Earth via microRNA biogenesis and the physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
If you cannot link the creation of subatomic particles from energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (microRNAs) to all biodiversity via Cytosis: “The Science Behind the Game,” you are probably a biologically uninformed theorist.
See for comparison:
What is code biology? Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 1-10
The first Special Issue on code biology – A bird’s-eye view Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 11-15
On universal coding events in protein biogenesis Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 16-25
How prokaryotes ‘encode’ their environment: Systemic tools for organizing the information flow Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 26-38
The splicing code Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 39-48
Fundamental principles of the olfactory code Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 94-101 open access
If you start with what is known about the Fundamental principles of the olfactory code you can link quantized energy-dependent changes in The splicing code to Gene expression evidence for remodeling of lateral hypothalamic circuitry in cocaine addiction.
Then you might help others who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease instead of helping those who make a profit by causing diseases. See also: A serious new hurdle for CRISPR: Edited cells might cause cancer, two studies find