Yuste and Eberwine would like to see 3D reconstructions of individual neurons compared to analyses of the genes expressed in those neurons. This may offer clues as to the type and function of each cell.
The nutrient energy-dependent structure and function of all cell types in all living genera links biodiversity from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in C. elegans to the predatory behavior of P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
All ecological adaptations, such as teeth, exemplify what is required to link energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genome from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
Predictably, Paul Allen will be the next to start funding works that might help to prevent the viral apocalypse, now that Bill Gates is mentally prepared to do so.
Malnourished children can be getting enough calories, but not the right nutrients.
See for comparison: Mathematics supports a new way to classify viruses based on structure
“Our work is the first to tie structural lineages to sequences so comprehensively,” says Professor Sinclair.
The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
The antigenic changes are clearly nutrient energy-dependent, as are all changes in all cell types of all living genera. Their results link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, which is why Sinclair et al (2017) must put his mathematical model back into the context of evolution across billions to millions of years.
They prefer that others, like Masatoshi Nei in “Mutation-driven evolution” (2013) place their claims into the context of how discussions about signaling between viruses and the supercoiled DNA of all organized genomes can be placed into the context of possible evolutionary relationships.
Without the energy-dependent changes, the virucidal effects of femtosecond blasts of UV light on energy-dependent codon optimality and DNA repair cannot link the de novo creation of the energy in hydrogen atoms to the biophysically constrained coding sequence in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction.
The energy-dependent coding sequence links the physiology of reproduction to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all living genera.
See for examples: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
…the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones are involved in neurogenic niche construction as exemplified in nematodes (Bumbarger, Riebesell, Rödelsperger, & Sommer, 2013), and in flies (Swarup et al., 2013).
See for comparison:
Three recent studies find that the single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2 mediates gamete fusion and is remarkably similar to class II fusion proteins found in viruses such as dengue and Zika.
In-vitro-fertilized human embryos often acquire large structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities. Liu et al. now show that multiple smaller copy number variations may also arise in in-vivo-conceived embryos. Analysis of these variations provides insight into the DNA mutational processes occurring in early embryos and the mechanisms underlying them.
I repeat: “…evolutionary relationships do not link energy-dependent changes in chirality from autophagy via the innate immune system to endogenous RNA interference and all biodiversity on Earth.” Similarly, “DNA mutational processes occurring in early embryos…” cannot shape the genome because mutations prevent biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry.
For comparison: Linking Protein and RNA Function within the Same Gene
Exposure to ultraviolet light leads to a cell-wide DNA damage response that includes a global reduction in transcription. Williamson et al., identify a protein involved in this process as well as a noncoding RNA produced by alternative processing of RNA transcribed from the same gene that promotes recovery from the repressed state.
Femtosecond blasts of UV light have already been linked to DNA repair via alternative processing of RNA transcribed from the same gene.
The fact that UV-light induced charge transfer states in DNA control pH responsive RNA-mediated DNA repair seems to have escaped the notice of those who tout selective repair via effective gene transfer without mentioning the source of energy for the transfer.
It’s the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight!
…in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)
How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy? (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991)