Summary: Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy. (December 8, 2016) Other definitions no longer apply.
Everything that theorists were taught to believe about entropy was probably based on the ridiculous assumption that “…there are no correlations between particles.”
Everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent autophagy shows that the creation of energy must be linked from the biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction via feedback loops that protect life from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
Research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology has been developed for more than 20 years based on what is known about the creation of quantized energy as information and details of the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems, which have been linked from the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
Reported on December 6, 2017 as: Separated Since the Dinosaurs, Bamboo-Eating Lemurs, Pandas Share Common Gut Microbes
“This really underscores the role that diet plays in determining what lives in our guts – and, in turn, how these microbial ecosystems can shape the way animals live,” McKenney says.
Microbial ecosystems are food energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction biophysically constrains viral latency. Without the pheromone-controlled physiology of food energy-dependent reproduction, bacteriophages and the virus-driven theft of quantized energy would link mutations to loss of functional structures that protect organized genomes from the degradation of messenger RNA. Everything known about cell type differentiation in all living genera has been placed into the context of links from physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics via what is known about supercoiled DNA.
For comparison, see this claim:
“The bamboo lemur’s evolutionary tree diverged from that of both panda species 83 million years ago – that’s 18 million years before dinosaurs went extinct,” says Erin McKenney, a postdoctoral researcher at North Carolina State University and lead author of a paper on the study. “These species are also separated by thousands of miles and the Indian Ocean. Red pandas and giant pandas aren’t closely related either, with their most recent ancestor coming 47.5 million years ago. Lemurs are primates, red pandas are related to raccoons, and pandas are related to bears.
“Yet all three species share these 48 gut microbes – more than 12 percent of the microbial types found in each species’ gut,” McKenney says. “The only common feature is their diet: all three species live almost exclusively on bamboo.”
The common feature was presented in this 2013 review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, which is a refutation of all neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense, and also a refutation of the ridiculous misrepresentations of “Big Bang” cosmologists. Those misereqpresentations led to two retractions of works published by Jack Szostak’s group in which false claims were made about non-enzymatic RNA replication.
See for comparison to what is known about the links from food energy to the pheromone-controlled physioloy of reproduction in species from microbes to humans: Altered responses to social chemosignals in autism spectrum disorder
“we speculate that social dysosmia may underlie part of the impaired reading of emotional cues in ASD.”
See for comparison: Global Sensory Impairment Predicts Morbidity and Mortality in Older U.S. Adults
Until now, no studies have examined how losing multiple senses affects older adults. To learn more, a team of researchers from the University of Chicago [including Martha McClintock] designed a study to focus on just that. Their study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Problems with the senses are tractable to differences in the energy-dependent changes in base pairs that link changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from RNA editing to the pheromone-controlled fixation of amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of all living genera by protecting the organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The complexity of the interactions was again recently placed into the context of quantum correlations — with new insights.
…standard thermodynamics presupposes the absence of initial correlations between interacting systems. We here experimentally demonstrate the reversal of the arrow of time for two initially quantum correlated spins-1/2, prepared in local thermal states at different temperatures, employing a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance setup. We observe a spontaneous heat flow from the cold to the hot system. This process is enabled by a trade off between correlations and entropy that we quantify with information-theoretical quantities.
They linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera. Constrained viral latency exemplifies the constrained entropy that Schrodinger placed into the context of What is Life? (1944). The updated version of his work was reported as: Experiment shows that arrow of time is a relative concept, not an absolute one
The idea of entangled particles has been in the news a lot lately as researchers around the world attempt to use it for various purposes—but there is another lesser-known property of particles that is similar in nature, but slightly different. It is when particles become correlated, which means they become linked in ways that do not happen in the larger world. Like entanglement, correlated particles share information, though it is not as strong of a bond. In this new experiment, the researchers used this property to change the direction of the arrow of time.
Everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated pheromone-controlled entropy (aka the “arrow of time”) is now referred to in the context of autophagy, which links the food energy-dependent fixation of amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity during species-specific developmental staging in species from microbes to humans.
… adult-specific overexpression of let-7 in female nervous tissue increased median fly lifespan by ~22%. We provide evidence that this lifespan extension is not due to alterations in nutrient intake or to decreased insulin signaling.
That fact about biophysically constrained entropy (autophagy/the “arrow of time”) replaces all theories about the emergence of life and evolution of biodiversity. Ridiculous theories were based on the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, which assumes there are no correlations between subatomic particles. Darwin’s “conditions of life” and “Kohl’s Laws of Biology” show that the correlations are manifested at every level of examination.
The feedback controls energy-dependent differences in H2, which consists of two different hydrogens. Control begins at the level of subatomic particles. The controlled differences link the speed of light on contact with water (H20) to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. That fact is exemplified in Drosophila and in the Amish population of Berne, Indiana. That modern human population manifests a nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled 10-year increase in their RNA-mediated lifespan.
The claim that “A null mutation in SERPINE1 protects against biological aging in humans” can be viewed in the context of what Richard Feynman claimed about human idiocy. Mathematical models of energy-dependent biophysically constrained entropy link autophagy to healthy longevity. They link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology. Only biologically uninformed science idiots publish research that supports ideas about mutation-driven evolution.
Few intelligent people would argue against the fact that life is food energy-dependent. But see: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman:
Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
My understanding is based on an understanding shared by many scientists and non-scientists, but no pseudoscientists.
Whether or not non-scientists know the facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, they are not likely to believe that the selection of what to eat by the organisms that eat it is the most critical factor in species survival. That helps to explain why: A third of Americans don’t believe in evolution
Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals that control the physiology of reproduction.
These facts do not refute evolution; they simply refute the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection that most people here were taught to believe is the theory of evolution.
That theory is far too ridiculous to be anything but a joke in the context of biological-based increasing organismal complexity. But here, we have lots of jokers, don’t we? The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.
See also the attack on my scientific credibility by PZ Myers and his idiot minions: One crank dies, another rises to take his place (2014)
Is alternative splicing the only mechanism to create variants in cells? No, of course not. External signals cause changes in the phosphorylation state of proteins in the cytoplasm, for example, that can affect metabolic activity; no alternative splicing involved. Signals can also switch on and switch off specific genes, again, no alternative splicing needed.
Most of the serious scientists I know laugh at people like PZ Myers. Some of them use sarcasm to address the ignorance of pseudoscientists. For example, see: A not entirely serious future history of neuroscience (2017)
Sarcasm alert. Thanks to Luca Turin for calling attention to this.
Author’s note: resting for a moment in a dark corner of the Society for Neuroscience conference’s poster hall, on the quiet solitude of the Wednesday afternoon in the History of Neuroscience aisle, a shambling figure, bent with age, appeared with a speed that belied his years. Suddenly lunging for me, he shoved a sheaf of papers into my hand, hissing in my ear “it gets worse — so much worse”. Startled, I glanced at the front page, and the date written at the top: 6th October 2106. “What is…” I began, but he’d already whirled away — “A warning!” he spat back over his shoulder. Then he stopped, growled “I hate this bit”, squeezed his conference badge — and vanished.
What follows is the text I have been able to reconstruct from those crumpled, torn, faded pages.
2037: Janelia Farm announces its Drosophila model of schizophrenia. HHMI instructs it to diversify its range of species.
My addendum: Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophila (2014)
Back to the future: The insect-to-elephant model of pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency is abandoned, again. Insect pheromone in elephants
The insect-to-elephant model of the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, which now are called microRNAs by all serious scientists, to survival of all individuals in all species. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology.
What we need to remember is that the devil is in the details.
Only by ignoring everything that has been learned about energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency can historians and other pseudoscientists continue to tout their ridiculous theories.