To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a genetic mouse model to simultaneously map Gpr182 localization patterns and elucidate novel physiological functions for the negative regulation of intestinal proliferative capacity, especially during regeneration and adenoma formation. Future studies to identify the ligand for this exciting and physiologically relevant orphan GPCR [G protein-coupled receptor] will shed light on its tractability as a potential therapeutic target.
The study also shows that science is as much about asking questions as finding answers.
The de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and GPCR-mediated cell type differentiation is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated.
Nutrient energy-dependent microRNA flanking sequences link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all morphological and behavioral phenotypes via the de novo creation of GPCRs. See: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
For example, the potential of hydrogen is expressed as pH and all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated energy-dependent protein folding chemistry is pH-dependent.
The questions that these researchers failed to ask are:
1) Where did the energy come from for the creation of this GPCR?
2) Where did the energy go when the GPCR mutated?
Until they understand the importance of the answers to those two questions, they will not know enough about GPCRs. It is important to link their creation from all energy-dependent chemotaxis and phototaxis to all biologically-based biodiversity on Earth via amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, which protect all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Anyone who does not have enough common sense to link energy from ecological variation to ecological adaptation is not likely to learn that virus-driven energy theft causes all pathology via the loss of GPCRs.
…comparative genomics indicated that thalassospiramide production is likely to be attendant on particular genes/pathways for amino acid metabolism, signaling transduction and compound efflux.
Amino acid metabolism is nutrient energy-dependent.
The issue begins with articles about various aspects of genomics, with Holland et al.  discussing gene duplication and Urrutia and co-workers  alternative splicing and their contributions to phenotypic innovation while Orlando and co-workers  outline the latest methodologies that allow analysis of fossil genomes.
Alternative splicing is nutrient energy-dependent and it links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions from the de novo creation of genes to the functional structures of all proteins and the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera via feedback loops that link what they eat to their physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
…we propose three particular network topologies that can be used to mine for other similar ‘phenotypic stability factors’ (PSFs) – (a) a double negative feedback loop with ZEB, (b) inhibition on both miR-200 and ZEB, and (c) a double negative feedback loop with ZEB as well as inhibiting miR-200. In all these three cases, the PSF can self-regulate positively or negatively. With a surging interest in mapping and modeling the signaling pathways regulating metastasis [45, 63, 101–104], the theoretical approach presented here can serve as a template to elucidate the effect of many intracellular and extracellular signals in regulating EMT dynamics and governing the relative stability of the E, M and E/M phenotypes.
Virus-driven energy theft allows the metabolism of energy in viruses to be linked from viral microRNAs to all pathology. It does not allow anyone to link viruses to the evolution of heterosexual love.
Larry Young already did this and decided that viruses must cause the evolution of human love.
Funding science involves a delicate balance. Science in the Obama years tilted the needle towards applied research—from the launch of the ambitious Precision Medicine Initiative to sequence the genomes of one million people, to the creation of a string of institutes to foster robotics and other innovative manufacturing technologies in partnership with private industry.
The Precision Medicine Initiative preceded the National Microbiome Initiative. Pseudoscientists finally realized that energy-dependent metabolic networks must be linked to genetic networks in attempts to understand the difference between healthy longevity and the pathology, which is caused by virus-driven energy theft. For comparison, “…the creation of a string of institutes to foster robotics and other innovative manufacturing technologies in partnership with private industry” was a way to provide corporations with more taxpayer funded research as the amount of suffering from disease increased and the death toll continued to rise.