A Nutrient-Driven tRNA Modification Alters Translational Fidelity and Genome-wide Protein Coding across an Animal Genus
Abstract excerpt: These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient.
Expression of multiple horizontally acquired genes is a hallmark of both vertebrate and invertebrate genomes
Conclusion: Although observed rates of acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in eukaryotes are generally lower than in prokaryotes, it appears that, far from being a rare occurrence, HGT has contributed to the evolution of many, perhaps all, animals and that the process is ongoing in most lineages. Between tens and hundreds of foreign genes are expressed in all the animals we surveyed, including humans. The majority of these genes are concerned with metabolism, suggesting that HGT contributes to biochemical diversification during animal evolution.
My comment: Taken together with the fact that genome-wide protein coding is nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated, it may be easier to understand why the biophysical constraints on the chemistry of protein folding must involve the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which enables fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell type in all individuals of all species. For a review of what is currently known about physics, chemistry, and conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation, see:
Molar Mass, Size, Charge and Interactions: Light Scattering Tools for Essential Biophysical Characterization
Excerpt: Biophysical techniques based on static and dynamic light scattering address many of the key analytical challenges in biotherapeutic R&D, from early candidate selection through scale-up, formulation, characterization, and comparability studies. This seminar will review light scattering technology and instrumentation, then present select examples illustrating how complete light scattering solutions facilitate rapid and effective development of biologics including mAbs, ADCs, PEGylated, and other proteins as well as viruses, VLPs, and nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles.