A study that identified genes linked to communication between different areas of the brain has been retracted by its authors because of statistical flaws.
September 4, 2014|
Excerpt: “This retraction raises the issue of how many papers may have falsely reported gene associations because of the constantly evolving changes in gene assemblies and boundaries. That’s really alarming to me.”
My comment: I am alarmed by those who report anything in terms of ‘constantly evolving changes in gene assemblies and boundaries.’ It seems that few people realize the importance of RNA-mediated events that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. See: RNA and dynamic nuclear organization
Indirectly attributing anything to an evolutionary event when only RNA-mediated events have been detailed in the context of biologically-based cause and effect makes many papers published in the past 50 years irrelevant.
This is why: Dobzahsky (1964) claimed that “…the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Others have continued to watch and collect data despite the clarify of Dobzahsky (1973). “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”
Fixed amino acid substitutions differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all species, and the substitutions are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled during life history transitions. See for review: Honey bees as a model for understanding mechanisms of life history transitions. “…we discuss the physiological and genetic mechanisms of this behavioral transition, which include large scale changes in hormonal activity, metabolism, flight ability, circadian rhythms, sensory perception and processing, neural architecture, learning ability, memory and gene expression.”
Unless experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests that an evolutionary event led to what obviously are RNA-mediated events in honeybees and humans, those who report their data as if gene assemblies and boundaries change via EVOLUTION stand to be corrected each time someone accurately represents cause and effect in the context of RNA-mediated events.
See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease and Starvation-Induced Transgenerational Inheritance of Small RNAs in C. elegans and Uncovering the Hidden Risk Architecture of the Schizophrenias: Confirmation in Three Independent Genome-Wide Association Studies