Amino acid substitutions within or near the active site of the viral neuraminidase (NA) may affect influenza virus fitness.
The authors cite the World Health Organization’s
Summary of neuraminidase amino acid substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors”
The summary is available as a pdf download.
The authors confirmed
…the association of viral load with outcome of human H5N1 infections and suggest potential differences in virulence and antiviral responses…
Their confirmation links food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of two-amino acid substitutions to constrained transmission of the 1918 influenza virus, and coronaviruses via the feedback loops that were linked to biophysically constrained differences in the circulating human influenza A and B viruses.
Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch in receptor binding preference from the human alpha-2,6 to the avian alpha-2,3 sialic acid resulted in a virus incapable of respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets but that maintained its lethality and replication efficiency in the upper respiratory tract.
The authors appear to not know the difference between mutations and food energy-dependent fixation of amino acid substitutions.
Remdesivir is a nucleoside inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Theoretically should be effective against certain positive and negative strand RNA viruses. Unfortunately, theories are useless when compared to what is known to intelligent serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency.
Intelligent serious scientists start with the light-activated assembly of the microRNA-RNA-peptide nanocomplex and link energy-dependent changes in enzymes to fixation of amino acid substitutions and outcomes across kingdoms.
For comparison, see: Flashback: Anthony Fauci on the HIV Epidemic 10 Years Ago (2010)
…kick-and-kill, or shock and kill, has yet to prove itself as an effective HIV cure.
That’s because viruses ecologically adapt by stealing the energy other cell types need to differentiate via fixation of amino acid substitutions that protect organized genomes in all living genera.
Anyone who suggests that a vaccine can be developed to protect against viruses that ecologically adapt to hosts across species is living with the reality of an epic failure to develop either an effective vaccine or to develop effective drugs that protect against stress-linked replication of human endogenous retroviruses and/or other viruses. Most viruses have been biophysically constrained by the food that people eat and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from soil bacteria to plants and animals.
Dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline are beneficial for preventing and treating obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ageing-related disorders, as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, improving skin and bone health, ameliorating neurological abnormalities, and promoting well being in infants, children and adults. Furthermore, these nutrients may promote the immunological defense of humans against infections by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses (including coronavirus)…
The fact that nutrients link biophysically constrained fixation of amino acid substitutions from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans continues to be ignored.
Population genetic analyses of 103 SARS-CoV-2 genomes indicated that these viruses evolved into two major types (designated L and S), that are well defined by two different SNPs that show nearly complete linkage across the viral strains sequenced to date.
Differences in SNPs are energy-dependent. Population genetic analyses ignore that fact.
The energy comes from food.
Population genetic analyses also ignore that fact.
The sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy, which links the Creation of the sun and the Creation of water to all oxygen-dependent life on Earth via what is known about oxidative phosphorylation is also ignored in the report: Discovery Of 2 Strains Of COVID-19 Coronavirus Hints At How It Evolved 3/4/20
That more aggressive strain was found in early cases from Wuhan, China, where the coronavirus was thought to have originated from, and the researchers think it may have evolved from the less aggressive type.
The virus likely went through “mutations and natural selection besides recombination” that caused it to develop different strains, according to the researchers.
For comparison to that pseudoscientific nonsense about naturally selected mutations and recombination, see what is known about energy-dependent recombinations and the: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA 10/12/15, and see for comic relief: