Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in DNA Base Pairs (3)
But about forty years ago the Dutchman de Vries discovered that in the offspring even of thoroughly pure-bred stocks, a very small number of individuals, say two or three in tens of thousands, turn up with small but ‘jump-like’ changes, the expression ‘jump-like’ not meaning that the change is so very considerable, but that there is a discontinuity inasmuch as there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. The significant fact is the discontinuity. It reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries’s mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology. We shall see later that this is much more than figurative. The mutations are actually due to quantum jumps in the gene molecule. But quantum theory was but two years old when de Vries first published his discovery, in 1902. Small wonder that it took another generation to discover the intimate connection! (page 33-34)
My comment: See also: What is Life?: With Mind and Matter and Autobiographical Sketches (Canto Classics) Reprint Edition
Roger Penrose who has co-authored with cosmologist George F.R. Ellis and theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking, asks:
How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?
My comment: The video about our insignificance can be compared in the context of a need shared by all living genera. They need to eat to gain energy and prevent the theft of energy by viruses.
Darwin’s “conditions of life” were removed when neo-Darwinian theorists put natural selection first. That replaced the anti-entropic virucidal force of the sun’s biological energy with de Vries (1904) definition of “mutation” and assumptions about how long it might take the accumulation of “jump-like” changes to cause one species to evolve into another species.
Serious scientists know how to link the energy from the sun to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs and to all cell type differentiation via biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein-folding chemistry. For comparison, the biologically uninformed masses continue to tout neo-Darwinian nonsense.
This educational video informs intelligent people who want to become biologically informed. It also presents a threat to those who prefer to believe in ridiculous theories.
For an example of an ongoing threat to anyone who prefers to believe in theories see the link to this claim:
The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
My comment: The theft of energy by the influenza virus is linked to DNA damage by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site, which can be linked to the entry of the virus into the cell and to antibiotic resistance in bacteria without invoking any neo-Darwinian nonsense. Viruses do not mutate and natural selection does not cause them to evolve. Theorists who claim that the evolution of anything can be linked to the evolution of antibiotic resistance or to the evolution of a new species from a different species are among the biologically uninformed. For example, aging theorists often cite the works of Richard Lenski et al., and claim that his experiments and others like them are proof of evolution.
See: The Man Who Bottled Evolution
Bacteria use these systems to sense and respond to their environment, which include stresses and nutrient conditions, but also include other bacteria and their antagonistic enzymes and specialized metabolites.
To identify the active molecule, we analyzed the HPLC-purified sample by UV absorbance and ESI-mass spectrometry. The molecule showed strong UV absorbances at 319, 333, and 351 nm, indicative of a conjugated pentaene moiety .
My comment: UV absorbances are linked to measurable spectophotometric differences in concentrations of metabolites in body fluids. The measurements link metabolic networks to genetic networks and cell type differentiation associated with visually perceived differences in morphology via links to plumage color or skin color, or other types of changing colors in eyes, hair, skin etc..
See for comparison:
Researchers have finally located the mutation that causes blue eyes, and the findings suggest that all blue-eyed humans share a single common ancestor born 6000 to 10,000 years ago.
My comment: The ideas that mutations are linked to changes in eye color or that mutations are linked to the changes in octopuses that enable them to camouflage themselves in rapidly changing ecological conditions are equally ridiculous. The color changes in octopuses link their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from the microbes in their digestive system to the feedback loops that link odors and pheromones to nutrient-dependent reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
See also: “Is UV light what Dobzhansky saw?”