UV-light mutations and gene loss (not gain)

By: James V. Kohl | Published on: March 20, 2015

The Neanderthals live on in us

March 13, 2015 Excerpt: “He opted instead for a medical degree and then a PhD at the University of Uppsala, where he was supposed to be probing the DNA secrets of a virus.”
My comment: If he had done what he was supposed to be doing, he might have learned how viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs contribute to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all species. If he had done that, he might never have started to confuse others with his nonsense about the evolution of human biodiversity. See also: Sunlight adaptation region of Neanderthal genome found in up to 65 percent of modern East Asian population.
Excerpt: “…the geographic distribution of the Neanderthal genomic region suggests that UV-light mutations were shown to be lost during the exodus of modern human from Africa, and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals. ”
My comment: The epigenetic effects of the sun link its anti-entropic energy to amino acid substitutions that stabilize the biophysically constrained RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding. The amino acid substitutions differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all species.
Like all mutations, the UV-light mutations perturb protein folding. Mutations contribute to loss of function. Loss of function leads to the loss of the genes and also to the creation of pseudogenes. For example, humans have more olfactory receptor pseudogenes than other primates. Claims that “…UV-light mutations were shown to be lost during the exodus of modern human from Africa, and reintroduced…” are based on pseudoscientific nonsense. Mutations perturb protein folding. That’s why they are lost. No one has shown that they are lost and then reintroduced. However, population geneticists have convinced some theorists that their calculations show mutations are lost and gained in different populations.
Population geneticists must use calculations instead of experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that links nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.  Their calculations lead people to claim that have shown what they think might link mutations and lost genes to the evolution of new species. That is not possible. Ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations via the nutrient dependent link between the number of amino acids and the exponential increase in the number of proteins that is linked to increasing organismal complexity manifested in the morphological and behavioral diversity of all genera.
Clarification: “We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.” — A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution
Experience-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to differences in the number of olfactory receptor genes in primates and other animals. Odor exposure leads to the creation of receptors that enable nutrients to enter cells. Nutrients that contribute to the stability of DNA in organized genomes are metabolized to species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man. The physiology of reproduction enables nutrient-dependent fixation of the amino acid substitutions that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all species.
The epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of all species via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes, not by mutations and loss of genes.
Svante Paabo knows that, as well as anyone. He co-authored:  Natural Selection on the Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in Humans and Chimpanzees and Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates.
If he does not know how the anti-entropic effects of light control the balance of viral microRNAs to nutrient-dependent microRNAs that leads to biodiversity, he should start  probing the DNA secrets of a viruses, which is what he was supposed to be doing decades ago.
August 18, 2014 Excerpt from the original article: Darwin had predicted that, like every other animal, human beings would have fossil ancestors. 
My comment: Darwin’s predictions were based on what he knew about links between ecological variation and their manifestations in ecological adaptations. This story and other ridiculous stories that link mutations to evolution have been told and retold so often that even some serious scientists believe the stories are true. Others are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, because people like Svante Paabo didn’t do what they were supposed to be doing.
Obviously, it is more difficult to study viruses and molecular mechanisms than it is to invent stories based on de Vries definition of mutation and on assumptions about how long it takes for a new species to evolve. That explains why “[W]hat Haldane, Fisher, Sewell Wright, Hardy, Weinberg et al. did was invent…. Evolution was defined as “changes in gene frequencies in natural populations.” The accumulation of genetic mutations was touted to be enough to change one species to another….  Assumptions, made but not verified, were taught as fact.
There is no explanation for why someone like Svante Paabo, who understands Natural Selection on.. Olfactory Receptor Gene(s) and the Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes [that] Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates would continue to deceive others and misrepresent what is currently known about physics, chemistry, and conserved molecular mechanisms in all genera. Indeed, it has become perfectly clear that Expression of multiple horizontally acquired genes is a hallmark of both vertebrate and invertebrate genomes is linked to the anti-entropic biological energy from the sun, not from mutations to the evolution of any species. The sun’s anti-entropic energy links viral microRNAs to entropic elasticity and to epigenesis and epistasis via nutrient-dependent microRNA’s and DNA repair mechanisms.
August 18, 2014 Conclusion (excerpt): ‘But there’s no doubt that Neanderthals live large in our imagination.”
My comment: This attests to the power of story-telling. It can lead others to imagine associations that are not possible. All associations between biologically-based cause and effect arise in the context of the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and protein folding.
For contrast, the story-telling appears to have led to the miss-identification of one species of snail as if it were “…different species and sub-species at least 113 times, more than any other animal or plant.”   It also appears to link microRNAs to the similarities of all crustaceans and insects. They now appear to be creatures of Biblical “like kind.” See: All in the (bigger) family
Excerpt: “In insects, falling levels of so-called juvenile hormone stimulate the transition to adulthood; the analogous hormone in crustaceans is methyl farnesoate, which spurs growth and molting. Juvenile hormone is thought to be specific to insects, whereas methyl farnesoate is inactive in that group. But researchers have learned that production of both hormones depends on the same rate-limiting enzymes. And Jerome Hui of the Chinese University of Hong Kong found that in both insects and crustaceans, the same set of micro RNAs control expression of the genes for those enzymes.”
The link from microRNAs to metabolic networks and genetic networks by enzymes is exactly what serious scientists would expect if chemical stimuli linked to food odors induced the de novo creation of receptors that allowed nutrients to enter the cell and fight the viruses the entered the cell via the same conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation that links species of microbes to man.
The lesson here seems to be “do what you are supposed to be doing” if you want to become a serious scientist. But, if you cannot do that, do not make up stories to explain what you did, instead. Your stories could lead others to become pseudoscientists who tell similar stories. In a short time, today’s students could evolve into nothing but pseudoscientists — if that has not already happened.

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