Phylogenetic Similarity of Popular Rice Varieties from Different Sources (2016)

Cites: Sablok and Shekhawat (2008)


“Microsatellites, often abbreviated as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are 1 to 5 bp repeat mutation prone motifs. Due to mutation prone specific and high rate of polymorphism, microsatellites (SSR) have become a modern genetic resource tool for the genetic mapping studies, developing and establishing new patterns of molecular breeding and in inferring the phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis. These repetitive stretches are distributed in the coding and non-coding region with a bias towards the noncoding regions.”

My comment: Six years later Caguiat and Tabana (2016) fail to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal quantized energy as information in ultraviolet light from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the SSRs and SNPs. The SNPs link energy-dependent changes in base pairs to the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. They use the term “motifs” to link what all serious scientists know about autophagy and cell type differentiation, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft.

If they were working with tulips or tobacco plants they might already have examined the extant literature and realized that the varieties of rice exemplify nutrient energy-dependent autophagy in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Unfortunately, most theorists are not botanists who understand virus-driven energy theft in the context of protein folding biochemistry in plants.

For example, see: Tulips broken by viruses.


…colorful patterns are caused by infection with potyviruses, which are filamentous plant viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes.

See also: The virome, microbiome, replisome and supercoiled DNA (November 3, 2015)


Eventually, someone will get the Nobel Prize that Rosalind Franklin probably would have received had she lived to link the tobacco mosaic virus and poliovirus from pathology in plants to all pathology in mammals via an atoms to ecosystems model of epigenetically-effected non-static DNA structure and function.

See also: Structural Basis for Receptor-Mediated Selective Autophagy of Aminopeptidase I Aggregates

Co-author Yoshinori Ohsumi won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

See for comparison: A milestone in small RNA biology—piRNA biogenesis from start to finish


PIWI-interacting RNAs, or piRNAs for short, are a class of ‘small regulatory RNAs’—tiny pieces of nucleic acid just 22–30 nucleotides in length. They may be small, but with their associated Argonaute proteins, piRNAs have the power to ‘silence’ transposable elements, so called egoistic genes found in the genomes of plants, fungi, and animals. piRNA-guided silencing can act on chromatin to block transposon transcription, or by destroying transposon mRNAs in order to block their translation into proteins.

Keep Reading