From E. coli to monkeys and mankind: Theories vs models (2)
Dedicated to Dr. Tom Jordan and Priscilla Jordan on the day of their retirement from the Baptist ministry, May 28, 2017. They always encouraged me to learn more about the “Laws of Biology” and link the Laws from energy as information to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction.
…changes in observed association and dissociation, suggesting the possibility of kinetic and thermodynamic tuning of Cas9 behavior.
Simply put, the technology didn’t work. That’s a problem for CRISPR/Cas9 advocates (see the incessant barrage of CRISPR/Cas9 promotion on the closed FB group CRISPR Cas9).
Advocates will be forced to accept the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has always been the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via food odors and pheromones.
That fact separates the serious scientists from the pseudoscientists who have refused to examine other facts about biologically-based biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. The facts start with the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy as information and the energy as information has been linked to all cell type differentiation by these researchers.
The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.
My summary of the signalling mechanism, which links subatomic particles to cell type differentiation in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria:
The active and inactive signaling states link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via slight variations at the nitrate-binding site. When the ion binds to the sensor, a change in 0.5-1 angstroms (approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself) causes a change in the protein that links input from the sensor to a change in the output that varies by as much as 7 angstroms.
In the context of what is known about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing in bacteria, the change in 0.5-1 angstroms can be linked from the changes in 7 angstroms to base pair changes and amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of species from E. coli to primates in the context of all energy-dependent interactive ecosystems, which appear to have existed from the dawn of Creation.
For example, the link from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all vertebrates is mentioned in the title of this published work: The zinc spark is an inorganic signature of human egg activation.
The spark that links inorganic material to organic life was placed into the context of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. See our section on molecular distance in: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.
Molecular distance. As measured in centimorgans, human and other species’ male and female chromosomes, including the autosomes, tend to have different lengths in various segments. To some extent, this suggests a correlation with physical distance but instead the differing lengths are based upon rates of recombination; although sections of most female chromosomes are longer than their homologous counterparts in male chromosomes, in some segments of various chromosomes opposite length-difference occurs, with males having larger centimorgan values than females in those regions (Lawrence, Collins, Keats, Hulten, and Morton, 1993; Murray, Buetow, Weber, Ludwigsen, Scherpbier-Heddema, Manion, Quillen, Sheffield, Sunden, and Duyk, 1994; Straub, Speer, Luo, Rojas, Overhauser, Ott, and Gilliam, 1993). While ramifications of these centimorgan sexual dimorphisms are not yet clearly established, in recent years cis- and trans-acting factors contributing to these recombination length differences have been reported for a specific part of the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Shiroishi, Sagai, Hanzawa, Gotoh, and Moriwaki, 1991).
Simply put, the cited works linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the innate immune system of bacteria, which was linked to sex differences in chromosomes. Note the difference between our accurate representation of biophysically constrained energy-dependent chromosomal inheritance and the claims in: Sex chromosome evolution: historical insights and future perspectives
…a direct experimental test of the steps in sex chromosome evolution constitutes more robust evidence than a comparative study, especially considering the new manipulative possibilities opened up by the CRISPR/Cas9 system . In any case, the field of sex chromosome evolution seems likely to remain active and dynamic for many years to come.
Reported as: Knowledge gap on the origin of sex
The review shows that the significance of ecology has not been sufficiently noted. Therefore, the biologists in Lund call for more research on how the living environment of a population affects the development and evolution of sex chromosomes. This could include factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes when populations that have lived separately meet and mix.
The fact that others still claim that the origin of sex has not already been linked from factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes attests to the ignorance of theorists. The fact that theorists want to attempt to evoke aspects of the CRISPR Cas9 technology in attempts to explain sexual differentiation attests to the ignorance of those who think more research is required to link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and chromosomal inheritance.
Energy-dependent changes were linked from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera in this published work: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (10/12/15) and in this parody from 12/10/14.
See also: Origins of Life: A Problem for Physics
The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.
See for comparison: The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology
A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.
Watch as Jeremy England eliminates any discussion of light activated endogenous substrates in the context of microRNAs linked to the energy-dependent creation of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.
You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.
If another ridiculous theory emerged, will it explain anything outside the context of experimental evidence that links energy as information to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera? For example, what theory might emerge to explain how an infection in the throat is linked to mental disorders in adults.
The researchers found that the risk of any mental disorder was increased for individuals with a positive streptococcal test compared to those without a streptococcal test…
Watch a biologist fail to link physics and chemistry from the strep infection to brain development via the innate immune system and molecular epigenetics as he explains CRISPR at 5 different levels of his ignorance. 5/24/17
The speaker is a co-author of: Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in a Mouse Model of Tumor Growth and Metastasis 3/5/15
In all of these experiments, the effect of mutations on primary tumor growth positively correlates with the development of metastases. Our study demonstrates Cas9-based screening as a robust method to systematically assay gene phenotypes in cancer evolution in vivo.
The results highlighted some well-known tumor suppressor genes in human cancer, including Pten, Cdkn2a, and Nf2, but included some genes not previously linked to cancer. Unexpectedly, the screen also implicated several microRNAs — small RNA segments that are functional in the cell.
Neville E Sanjana, has now linked his ignorance from 2015 to assays that link energy-dependent microRNAs to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Kaveli Kull attests to the fact about what loser must do, when facts replace their ridiculous theories about genome editing.
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
Anyone who has tried to explain what humans are made of without linking energy from the light activated endogenous substrate that links ATP to the creation of RNA via microRNAs in the context of what is now being referred to as endogenous RNA interference may not recognize how desperate evolutionary theorists have become in their attempt to make others think that all neo-Darwinian theorists are not losers.
See (link opens .pdf) Participation of glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle, in nuclear adenosine triphosphate synthesis (1963)
…thymus nuclei appear to have an endogenous substrate, and some experiments are presented which suggest that this substrate is probably not glycogen or glucose.
Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).